Rebuttal

*The entirety of this work is protected by copyright (see Copyright information section).

***UPDATE October 16, 2020: Please see the “Recent Developments” section (the entry for October 16, 2020) for information in regard to an important endorsement of this blog.

The purpose of this page is to rebut the so-called Charity Adkins “test results” which were type-written and posted by Sarah Burns Atkins on her blog August 1, 2020. She admits that she posted “results” which she typed herself rather than the actual screenshots of results which were to be posted.  She notes that the “links” were “broken,” so she was unable to post screenshots.  I must point out that there are no “links” to post for screenshots.  They are uploaded to the blog via the media library.

The delay in posting this Rebuttal page is due to my desire to obtain further test results for Audalene Starr, the Charity Adkins test subject. I wanted to be able to compare apples to apples, so I decided to purchase my own full mitochondrial and full autosomal tests for Audalene’s DNA from FTDNA.   Further, I decided this was a good opportunity to obtain a different company’s mitochondrial and autosomal test results; therefore, I purchased tests for both Audalene and Jeane from 23andMe.

*Dorene Soiret was granted permission by Audalene Starr and Jeane Chaffin to post and discuss their genealogy and DNA test results in their entirety.  Permission to upload their raw DNA results from FTDNA and 23andMe to GEDmatch granted to Dorene Soiret by Audalene Starr and Jeane Chaffin.

Housekeeping:

A little housekeeping is in order before we get started.

Audalene Mays Adkins Starr’s female line of descent from Charity Adkins:

Bluesky Cornstalk married/partnered with Parker Vincent Adkins.

Charity Adkins  married Randolph Adkins.  Their fathers were brothers.  Charity and Randolph were Adkins 1st cousins.

Rhoda Adkins (parents: Adkins 1st cousins) m. Merritt Johnson.

Zerilda Johnson (mother: Adkins) m. Enoch Adkins.  Zerilda and Enoch were Adkins 2nd cousins, once removed.

Betsy Adkins (parents: Adkins 2nd cousins, once removed) married Calvin Dillon.

Ella Dillon (mother: Adkins) married Walter Adkins (mother: Mays).  Ella and Walter were Adkins 3rd cousins, once removed.

“Goldie” Adkins (parents: Adkins 3rd cousins, once removed) married Russell Mays (mother: Adkins).  Goldie and Russell were Adkins 4th cousins.

Audalene Mays Starr (parents: Adkins 4th cousins) married Audie Adkins (direct male-line descendant of William Adkins, Sr.).  Audalene and Audie were 4th cousins.

*Audalene’s son Audie Duane Adkins is both a direct male- AND female-line descendant of Charity Adkins and William Adkins, Sr.!

Jeane Chaffin’s direct female line descent from Keziah Adkins Fry:

Mary Last Name Unknown married Parker Vincent Adkins.

Keziah Mallory Adkins (father: Adkins) married George Peter Fry II.

Susannah Fry (mother: Adkins) married Elias Adkins.  Susannah and Elias were Adkins first cousins.

Arminta “Minta” Adkins married William Joseph Adkins.  Arminta and William were Adkins first cousins.

Susanna M. Adkins (parents Adkins 1st cousins) married Martin VanBuren “Van” Fry.

Martha Fry  (mother: Adkins) married Fletcher Stiltner

Georgia Stiltner married Walter H. Berry

Janet Hope Berry married Donald Lloyd Chaffin

Jeane Chaffin

DNA Consultants as compared to FTDNA:

First, let’s make sure we have our facts in place regarding population matches and where they come from for each company.

DNA Consultants

DNA Consultants matches their clients to real people, using solid science and methodologies.  The company has been in the DNA testing business since 2003. The populations have been taken from studies “published in journals like Forensic Science International since 1995, when the ‘CoDIS’ standard for identity testing was introduced by the FBI.”

https://dnaconsultants.com/news/tribal-populations-doubled-enrolled… fbclid=IwAR1O2pKtZQ58ej5Gjp5q8elJWB1VsscRpj5wShKPyhf65LKnAqOQ4vlyQdA

A quote from the link above further states: “Insufficient data on Native Americans has long hampered both geneticists and genealogists. Finally, a major study[1] has addressed this failing with 29 separate American Indian tribes and an overall North American sample containing a total of 533 individuals and representing a diverse gene pool of about 1,000 alleles (variants). DNA Consultants added the new data to its FORENSIC matching database on July 27, 2018, more than doubling its Native American populations.  (Emphasis added.)

“Included were eagerly-anticipated genetic profiles of Creek, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa and Cherokee, all representing federally recognized or enrolled members of their tribe or nation.”

Most DNA testing companies have about 20 or fewer North or South American Indian populations, of which only a handful are U.S. tribes. None is in the East. We have STR data for over 60 American Indian populations, including 3 Cherokee groups, one of which is Enrolled Cherokee from North Carolina.” (Underlining added by me.)

In a more recent article, the company has written:

“DNA Consultants can match its customers with American Indian tribes that other companies can’t promise because of advantages in the data it has and the unique method it employs.

“’It’s like looking for a specific book at a library,’ says Teresa A. Yates, vice president of communications, who spends a lot of her time on the phone with customers. If that book is not in that library, you’re not going to be able to check it out.’”

“DNA Consultants maintains all forensic population samples that have ever been published on American Indians, and undertook three of its own, whereas companies like 23&me [sic] and Family Tree DNA have very limited data, none, as it turns out from Cherokee studies. Eastern and southeastern Indians are typically underestimated, if not completely absent, in genetic surveys. Most descendants of Cherokee and other Eastern American Indian heritage draw blanks in ancestry testing. Often only Short Tandem Repeat testing, the backbone of DNA Consultants’ approach, reveals fine-grain American Indian connections.”  (Emphasis added.)

DNA Diagnostics Center is the very highly regarded lab that DNA Consultants uses for their tests:

FTDNA:

Here is a link to their methodology Whitepaper.  It was originally published when myOrigins was first released in 2014.  The paper was updated April 7, 2017 with the release of the Verson 2.0 update which is still in use as of this writing:

https://learn.familytreedna.com/family-finder-autosomal-testing/myo…

I would like to draw your attention to the section entitled “4 Reference Populations.”  Their populations were gathered from four sources:

  1. The GeneByGene DNA customer database
  2. The Human Genome Diversity Project
  3. The International HapMap Project
  4.  The Estonian Biocentre 1000 Genome.

So, I did a little research:

GeneByGene DNA customer database — test subjects are all self-identified.
Depends which test you take as to how the test is physically administered and processed. It is another branch of FTDNA, catering more to the relationships and medical side.

https://genebygene.com/products

(*The lab that DNA Consultants uses is highly regarded for these same type of tests. I see that the lab DNA Consultants uses also conducts testing for tribal enrollment, so I was quite impressed with that!)

Human Genome Diversity Project — test subjects are all self-identified.

This study had a lot of problems and wasn’t quite so successful as they had hoped due to ethical issues:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC479208/

Link to full article:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC479208/pdf/jmedeth00003-0130.pdf

http://www.hgalert.org/topics/personalInfo/hgdp.htm

International HapMap Project — test subjects are all self-identified. https://www.genome.gov/11511175/about-the-international-hapmap-proj…

(I found it VERY surprising that they used participants from Utah in the United States to determine ancestry from northern and western Europe.  Please see “What Populations Were Sampled.”)

HapMap, was the first phase of the study.  Populations sampled:  Yoruba, Nigeria; Japan; China and “the United States (Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe).

HapMap 2, the second phase of the study, a further 2.1 million SNPs were successfully genotyped on the same individuals (from Phase 1).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689609

HapMap 3, third phase of the study.  Populations sampled: African ancestry in Southwest USA; Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry from the CEPH collection; Han Chinese in Beijing, China; Chinese in Metropolitan Denver, Colorado; Gujarati Indians in Houston, Texas; Japanese in Tokyo, Japan; Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; Mexican ancestry in Los Angeles, California; Maasai in Kinyawa, Kenya; Toscani in Italia; Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria.

https://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/downloads/human/hapmap3.html

Estonian Biocentre 1000 Genomes Project — test subjects are all self-identified.

Regarding genealogy of the participants:  Participants were only asked to provide information about their children, parents and grandparents.  “Criteria to participate: “We will ask you where your grandparents were born, and [where appropriate] what language they spoke. Tell us if you are unsure, because the samples should be from people whose grandparents mostly came from [geographic location or ethnic group].”

Link to the questionnaire:

1000 Genomes Project Consent to Participate Form:

https://www.internationalgenome.org/sites/1000genomes.org/files/doc…

 

Before We Move On:

DNA studies are so new. It is crucial to keep in mind that new discoveries are being made in one form or another on almost a daily basis.  In fact, Haplogroup X was not always an “accepted” Native American haplogroup until recently.  Haplogroup X was originally discovered in Europe and was thought to only be regional.  The historical movements of haplogroups WERE NOT strictly defined. Unfortunately, modern-day scientists also believe that oceans, rivers and other large bodies of water were barriers to migration, when, in fact, they may have actually been promotors, as in the settlement of Polynesia. I believe an excellent argument for the movement of our ancient ancestors across the oceans is apparent in our family’s DNA Consultants World Population results. There is a very strong pattern of Aboriginal Australian and Polynesian DNA matches, among others of interest. (Please see this on point article from the Journal Nature https://www.nature.com/news/ghost-population-hints-at-long-lost-migration-to-the-americas-1.18029.) Our family as well as those families with whom they intermarried, in that they have been, for the most part, VERY isolated in the same small region since the earliest Colonial times.

In my opinion, DNA companies with small population databases and algorithms should not hold themselves out as experts in predicting percentages of ethnicity nor where customer’s ancestors came from when they cannot duplicate an exact result for a customer taking the same test twice (Audalene Starr which I discuss later). I found a similar situation where identical twins took DNA tests from FIVE of the big DNA companies and I was shocked to learn that not only was there a difference when comparing the companies’ test results, but that those companies delivered different one-on-one test results between the two identical twins — the results should have been identical! Don’t take my word for it…In the article below, Dr. Mark Gerstein, a computational biologist from Yale University explained, “The fact that they present different results for you and your sister, I find very mystifyng.”

https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/dna-ancestry-kits-twins-marketplace-1.4980976

The article is so eye-opening, I think it important to include it here:

“Twins get some ‘mystifying’ results when they put 5 DNA ancestry kits to the test”

by Charlsie AgroLuke Denne, CBC News · Posted: Jan 18, 2019 4:00 AM ET | Last Updated: January 18, 2019 (Please click on the link below to view the article which contains the charts and a video of Dr. Gerstein explaining their findings.):

“One set of identical twins, two different ancestry profiles.

“At least that’s the suggestion from one of the world’s largest ancestry DNA testing companies.

“Last spring, Marketplace host Charlsie Agro and her twin sister, Carly, bought home kits from AncestryDNA, MyHeritage, 23andMe, FamilyTreeDNA and Living DNA, and mailed samples of their DNA to each company for analysis.

“Despite having virtually identical DNA, the twins did not receive matching results from any of the companies.

“In most cases, the results from the same company traced each sister’s ancestry to the same parts of the world — albeit by varying percentages.

“But the results from California-based 23andMe seemed to suggest each twin had unique twists in their ancestry composition.

“The identical twins also apparently have different degrees of Eastern European heritage — 28 per cent for Charlsie compared to 24.7 per cent for Carly. And while Carly’s Eastern European ancestry was linked to Poland, the country was listed as “not detected” in Charlsie’s results.

“The fact that they present different results for you and your sister, I find very mystifying,” said Dr. Mark Gerstein, a computational biologist at Yale University.

“Twins’ DNA ‘shockingly similar’

Marketplace sent the results from all five companies to Gerstein’s team for analysis.

He says any results the Agro twins received from the same DNA testing company should have been identical.

“And there’s a simple reason for that: The raw data collected from both sisters’ DNA is nearly exactly the same.

Watch: Yale scientists mystified by different results for twin sisters. (*Please see the link to the article in order to watch the video here. At the moment, I don’t know how to post it at this location.)

“The team at Yale was able to download and analyze the raw data set that each company used to perform its calculations.

“An entire DNA sample is made up of about three billion parts, but companies that provide ancestry tests look at about 700,000 of those to spot genetic differences.

“According to the raw data from 23andMe, 99.6 per cent of those parts were the same, which is why Gerstein and his team were so confused by the results. They concluded the raw data used by the other four companies was also statistically identical.

“Still, none of the five companies provided the same ancestry breakdown for the twins.

“”We think the numbers should be spot on the same,’ Gerstein said.

“While he can’t say for certain what accounts for the difference, Gerstein suspects it has to do with the algorithms each company uses to crunch the DNA data.

“‘The story has to be the calculation. The way these calculations are run are different.”

“When asked why the twins didn’t get the same results given the fact their DNA is so similar, 23andMe told Marketplace in an email that even those minor variations can lead its algorithm to assign slightly different ancestry estimates.

“The company said it approaches the development of its tools and reports with scientific rigour, but admits its results are ‘statistical estimates.’

“Differences across all 5 companies

“Family had told the Agro sisters their ancestors come from Sicily, Poland and Ukraine.

“However, the results each sister received from the ancestry companies revealed some surprising — and, in some cases, conflicting — family history.

Charlsie Agro and her aunt, Marjoh Agro, on vacation in Malta last summer. Before using DNA ancestry kits, the Agro sisters believed most of their ancestry traces back to Sicily, Poland and Ukraine. (CBC)

“AncestryDNA found the twins have predominantly Eastern European ancestry (38 per cent for Carly and 39 per cent for Charlsie).

“But the results from MyHeritage trace the majority of their ancestry to the Balkans (60.6 per cent for Carly and 60.7 per cent for Charlsie).

“One of the more surprising findings was in Living DNA’s results, which pointed to a small percentage of ancestry from England for Carly, but Scotland and Ireland for Charlsie.

“Another twist came courtesy of FamilyTreeDNA, which assigned 13-14 per cent of the twins’ ancestry to the Middle East — significantly more than the other four companies, two of which found no trace at all.

“Dr. Paul Maier, population geneticist at FamilyTreeDNA, acknowledges that identifying genetic distinctions in people from different places is a challenge.

“Finding the boundaries is itself kind of a frontiering science, so I would say that makes it kind of a science and an art,” Maier said in a phone interview.

“How it works

“In order to determine someone’s ancestry, companies like 23andMe compare a DNA sample to what is commonly referred to as a reference panel. A reference panel is made up of a select number of DNA samples, from previous customers who have taken the test and/or from publicly available DNA databases.

“Dr. Simon Gravel, a population geneticist with McGill University who is also part of the 1000 Genomes Project, says ancestry companies will take 700,000 or so of your DNA segments and use an algorithm to compare your segments to those in their reference panel.

“‘They’re going to match it to different parts of the world,’ he said. ‘In the end, there’s going to be some overall of these [reference panel] contributions where your DNA matched better, and that’s going to be their estimate of how much ancestry you have.’ (Emphasis added.)

“‘They kind of need to take a pencil more or less and say, ‘That’s a region.’ And different companies draw different circles.’

– Dr. Simon Gravel, population geneticist

“Different companies use different panels, so they’re each likely to provide the same customer with different ancestry results.

“In a statement to Marketplace, AncestryDNA acknowledged that the size of the reference panel is key. The company said it is ‘always working to improve its science’ and that its ‘new, larger reference panel will give customers more precise results.’

“Why so different?

“There are a variety of factors that can affect the accuracy of results from an ancestry company, Gravel says, but of particular importance is the size and quality of its reference panel. The larger and more representative it is, the more accurate the results, he says.

“‘If you have fewer people that you can compare to, then you make more shortcuts,’ he said.

“‘You also run more of a risk of having missed diversity that you might not know existed in one particular region.’

Another reason for discrepancies in the results from different companies is the arbitrary way each company defines the world’s regions, Gravel says.

“‘They kind of need to take a pencil more or less and say, ‘That’s a region.’ And different companies draw different circles.’

Watch: Do consumers expect DNA ancestry results to be 100% accurate? (*Please see the link to the article in order to watch the video here. At the moment, I don’t know how to post it at this location.)

“Gravel also says the tests tend to be more accurate for people with European ancestry, as more people with that particular background have been tested.

“He cautions people not to interpret their test results as definitive. He says a testing company can use DNA ancestry kits to trace a person’s ancestry to a particular continent with statistical accuracy, but anything more specific than that, like pinpointing a country or town, is less reliable.

Lack of oversight

“The biggest DNA ancestry companies have tested millions of people. MyHeritage, for example, says it expects sales of well over $100 million this year.

“Despite the popularity of ancestry testing, there is absolutely no government or professional oversight of the industry to ensure the validity of the results.

“It’s a situation Gravel finds troubling.

“‘Usually in science we have a process like peer review and make the data accessible, and make the algorithms accessible, that’s how we ensure the high quality of the data,‘ he said.

“‘In this case, we don’t have access to that because the companies keep the data private.”

That’s why Gravel says consumers should take the results generated by these tests with a grain of salt. People need to understand these tests are not subject to the same standard as diagnostic medical testing. They are more like a “recreational scientific activity,” he said. Emphasis added.

“Similar to 23andMe, MyHeritage says its results are ‘ethnicity estimates.’ (Emphasis added.)

“When spokesperson Rafi Mendelson was then asked why MyHeritage presents results with such certainty — video results sent to customers declare, ‘You are,’ before listing a person’s ancestry — he said he believes the messaging is clear, that results are only estimates, and that North American consumers are especially clear on this.” (Emphasis added.)

“Results subject to change

“Whatever your ancestry results, don’t get too attached to them. They could change.

“In September, AncestryDNA informed customers that it had updated their estimates with the following message:

“‘Your DNA doesn’t change, but we now have 13,000 additional reference samples and powerful, new science to give you better ethnicity results.’

“The ancestry estimates used in this story are from Nov. 6, 2018, after the company updated the twins’ results.

“The new estimates included previously undetected ancestral ties to Russia, Greece, the Balkans and Baltics.

— With files from Jeannie Stiglic

I hope you found the article above as enlightening as I did. I believe you “will see when you read the information below that there is still much to learn about ALL mitochondrial haplogroups.  Shouldn’t we keep an open mind as more discoveries are made, both archaeologically and genetically?

*It is important for us to study Haplogroup H’s distribution throughout the world.  As you can see, Haplogroup H is significant in other regions throughout the world, not only “Europe.”

Haplogroup H world distribution per FTDNA:

“HAPLOGROUP H

“Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominately European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM).  It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM.  It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia.  Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H.”  (Emphasis added.)

Another important piece of information which should be noted regarding haplogroup movements I found in FTDNA’s Learning Center on the “mtDNA – Results (mtDNA – Mutations)” page, under the “Your Origins” section, that due to “unique population movements,” that haplogroups from one region can sometimes be found in another.

Haplogroup H World Frequency Map:

https://www.familytreedna.com/my/mtdna-migration-map

(Unfortunately, you have to be a customer signed in to your account to view the information with the illustrations containing the percentages and need permission from the company to post those illustrations.)

I did find a few sites that do contain maps of the regions, so I shall post those regions which FTDNA indicates haplogroup H appears below.   I also decided to perform an analysis of what those percentages mean in real numbers according to the most recent population information I could find for each region.

Further, what I found significant from studying the FTDNA haplogroup H chart was how widespread haplogroup H really was, particularly in Russia (North Asia)…that land bridge everyone keeps talking about — Russia, Siberia, inner Asia…haplogroups from one region can sometimes be found in another…hmmm…well, just thinking…

BLOG MAP ASIA COMPLETE

 Here is a map from 23andMe which gives a depiction of the disbursal of Haplogroup H. I inserted the red block to draw attention to the regions:

North Asia, 30.63%:

BLOG MAP NORTH ASIA

“The gigantic Russia constitutes the entire region of North Asia, and extends across the Urals into Europe.”

As reported by the United Nations, as of Saturday, August 22, 2020, the population of Russia was 145,934,462.

30.63% = 44,699,726 people carry haplogroup H.

Central Asia, 31.98%:

BLOG MAP CENTRAL ASIA

“This region, previously a part of the Soviet Union, is one of the most inhospitable on earth. Formed by deserts, mountains and steppes, this region houses some of the least densely populated countries in the world.”

As reported by the United Nations, as of Tuesday, August 25, 2020, the population of Central Asia was 74,501,963.

31.98% =  23,825,788 people carry haplogroup H.

Middle East, 23.31%:

BLOG MAP MIDDLE EAST

https://worldpopulationreview.com/continents/the-middle-east-population

The Middle East is made up of a vast number of ethnic groups, and as of 2016, the region has an estimated population of over 411 million.”  (I was unable to locate a reliable statistic later than this, so I will use the 411 million figure for the calculation.)

23.31% =  95,804,100 people carry the H haplogroup.

Northern Africa, 8.6%:

http://ontheworldmap.com/africa/map-of-north-africa.html

BLOG MAP NORTH AFRICA

As reported by the United Nations, as of Tuesday, August 25, 2020, the population of Northern Africa was 246,868,954.

8.6% = 21,230,730 people carry the H haplogroup.

South Asia, 4.04%:

BLOG MAP SOUTH ASIA

“The Indian subcontinent constitutes the South Asian region.”

As reported by the United Nations, as of Tuesday, August 25 2020, the population of South Asia was 1,943,625,142.

4.04% = 78,522,375 people carry the H haplogroup.

Europe, 42.2%:

https://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/europe

EUROPE MAP FOR BLOG

(You can see that the region making up “Europe” is quite large and encompasses many countries.)

As reported by the United Nations, as of Tuesday, August 25 2020, the population of Europe was 747,706,508.

42.2% =  315,532,142 people carry the H haplogroup.

Audalene Starr’s “Mitochondrial Origins”:

(The barely readable screenshot posted below is a screenshot of EXACTLY how the partial “results” were emailed to Audalene Starr and Lynda Davis-Logan.  Please also note that those partial “results” DID NOT include the rCRS values, and, further, Sarah, AGAIN, chose to withhold the rCRS test results of the “typed-out” version of “test results” on her blog.)  She may hold the opinion that the rCRS is not important..but, as you will read shortly, in my opinion, she is wrong…taking ALL information, including the rCRS into consideration is, in fact, VERY important.

FTDNA mitochondrial test administered by Sarah Burns Atkins.  Permission to post granted by Audalene Starr:

SARAH VERSION OF AUDALENES TEST RESULTS

Sarah writes that “Roberta Estes states that everyone should be compared directly to Mitochondrial Eve (RSRS).”

I called FTDNA and verified that the results provided to their mtDNA Full Sequence customers (HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region exact matches) are, indeed, results from the RSRS…

What I find quite perplexing and I believe you will too is that, in fact, FTDNA’s article “Understanding your mtDNA Full Sequence Results” states:  “Following scientific standards, Family Tree DNA compares all mtDNA results to the rCRS, and…” (we should, in my opinion, replace “and” with BUT) “…provides you with your comparisons to the RSRS.”  (Emphasis added.)  Okay, pay attention here:  When you look at the mtDNA certificate provided to the customer, it states that “The Cambridge Reference Sequence is the accepted mtDNA standard.”  The certificate is signed by the Director of the Gene By Gene laboratory.  (Emphasis added.)  My question, so why provide you a certificate of the accepted mtDNA standard, yet provide you with test results from the RSRS?:

AUDALENE FTDNA CERTIFICATE RED BOX AND BLOCK TRADEMARK

During that telephone conversation, I had the representative go through Audalene’s RSRS and rCRS test results with me.

The results provided to the customer are, indeed, results from the RSRS.  I asked when their customers’ mitochondrial DNA RSRS test results were computed, if the missing or extra mutations are included when running that comparison  — THEY ARE NOT.

I asked if it meant that the people who are listed in the Exact HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region mitochondrial DNA matches could have missing and extra mutations different from the other test subjectsYES, THOSE INDIVIDUALS CAN HAVE DIFFERENT MISSING AND EXTRA MUTATIONS.   So we will never know whether those”HVR1, HVR2 and Exact Coding Region Matches” to Audalene or Jeane are, in fact, true exact matches. Here is the important part to keep in mind — the test subjects are being given a CONSENSUS haplogroup, NOT results tailored to each individual customerFor me, personally, a consensus haplogroup does not work for what I want to accomplish, alignment of lineages going back in a recent timeframe to the same woman.   I desire a more forensic approach and result. This kind of detail DOES make a huge difference.  I question if one can accurately compare the origins or relatedness of any of those matches (ranging from HVR1, HVR2, and Exact coding region matches all the way down the line to a genetic distance of 3) because they have not been individually, fully analyzed down to the level of those missing and extra mutations…

An excellent on-point article:  “The Case for the Continuing Use of the Revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the Standardization of Notation in Human Mitochondrial DNA Studies,” by Bandelt, H., Kloss-Brandstätter, A., Richards, M. et al., J Hum Genet 59, 66–77 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2013.120:

https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013120

And another article which explains more in detail the ramifications of “consensus” and “fuzzy” haplogroup matches:

FTDNA mitochondrial test administered by Dorene Soiret:

(Screenshots taken 8/30/2020.)

*rCRS Values — which are the accepted mtDNA standard:

RSRS Values for comparison purposes:

Audalene Starr’s DNA Consultants’ test results administered by Dorene Soiret:

Audalene Starr’s FTDNA “Autosomal Origins”:

I was quite surprised that the company had different test results for the same individual.  (Test results from this company did not include Audalene’s Native American; however, it was expected because this company does not have eastern North American Native American populations in their database.)

FTDNA Autosomal Test Administered by Sarah. (You will note the differences between Audelene’s two FTDNA test results run with the same 2.0 version):

(Screenshots posted to Adkins Family History Group 8/27/2020.)

AUDALENE STARR AUTOSOMAL DNA ORIGINS

FTDNA Autosomal Test Results Administered by Dorene Soiret:

Screenshot taken 8/30/2020.

AUDALENE STARR AUTOSOMAL DNA ORIGINS BY DS

Audalene’s two FTDNA autosomal test kits compared to one another on GEDmatch. Regions that have no-match areas outlined in red):

I found it very curious that the test results from the same company for the same individual had locations that were not exact matches:

AUDALENE STARR TWO FTDNA GEDMATCH KITS COMPARED P1
AUDALENE STARR TWO FTDNA GEDMATCH KITS COMPARED P2
AUDALENE STARR TWO FTDNA GEDMATCH KITS COMPARED P3
AUDALENE STARR TWO FTDNA GEDMATCH KITS COMPARED P4

Audalene GEDmatch Eurogenes K9b Admixture Utility (kit administered by Dorene Soiret):

(Tests run and screenshot taken 8/31/2020.)

AUDALENE EUROGENES K9b COMBINED KIT
AUDALENE EUROGENES K9b COMBINED KIT CHROMOSOMES

23andMe Test Results Administered by Dorene Soiret:

I thought it would be beneficial to have as much DNA information as possible to compare, so I ordered a 23andMe test for Audalene and Jeane (awaiting Jeane’s 23andMe test results).  Test results from this company did not include Audalene’s Native American; however it was expected because this company, too, does not have eastern Native American populations in their database.

AUDALENE STARR 23ANDME ORIGINS BLOG

 

Audalene Starr’s DNA Consultants Autosomal/STR Test Results Administered by Dorene Soiret (Over 500 populations contained in the company’s database):

AUDALENE WORLD P1

AUDALENE WORLD P2
AUDALENE WORLD P3

Here is a link to DNA Consultants populations:

List of Audalene Starr’s (RSRS) HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region “Exact” Matches from FTDNA Test Administered by Dorene Soiret:

(Screenshot taken 8/29/2020.)

The matches ARE NOT in any order of “strength of relationship.”  (I added the list of numbers to the left for ease of reference and blocked out several letters of the match names in order to protect these people’s privacy because I do not have their permission to post their names AND it would be a violation of FTDNA’s Terms of Service, Section 6, C (iv) not to do so.)

(Red star indicates the match result that the blog owner indicates was not present in her version of Audlene’s FTDNA mtDNA but ARE present in the test which I administered.  The starred match is also present in Jeane Chaffin’s mtDNA test results):

List of Audalene Starr’s (RSRS) HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region “Exact” Matches for FTDNA Test Administered by Sarah:

Please compare the screenshots below with the screenshots of the test that I administered above.  Please notice that Sarah (the blog owner) redacted the haplogroup and date columns to the far right. In so doing, she implies there is some type of strength of the match, when, in fact, this list is by the date of the match — NOT the strength of the match. (She implies a strength of relationship again under her blog heading “Audalene Starr’s Exact Matches — as of August 1, 2020).  I confirmed that this list is NOT an order based on the strength of the match when I spoke with a representative from Family Tree DNA on August 31, 2020.  (Again, this poor quality screenshot is the exact screenshot which Sarah emailed to Audalene and Lynda Davis-Logan.)

(I blocked out several letters of the match names in order to protect these people’s privacy because I do not have their permission to post their names AND it would be a violation of FTDNA’s Terms of Service, Section 6, C (iv) not to do so.)

Analysis of Audalene Starr’s (RSRS) HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region Mitochondrial DNA “Exact” Matches obtained by Dorene Soiret:

I took the time to examine in more detail Audalene’s exact HVR1, HVR2 and Coding Region matches.  I wanted to learn more about them and from where their female-line family originates.  I examined their profile information, the family trees of each (where provided), the direct female-line ancestors listed and compared the information to the direct-line female in the tree, determined that the subject lived in the United States by looking at the email extension information provided by the user/subject. 

Please note that every single direct-line female, (with the exception of Subject No. 2 who lists no information for his mitochondrial line; No. 5 lists no country of origin for the surname of the direct female line; No. 7 lists a male as his oldest direct-line female; No. 9 lists his mother as the oldest direct-line female, whom he lists the surname as being “Danish”; No. 16 lists no direct-line female information) traces back to a female ancestor whose origin is the United States.

Please note that the match dates are to the right.  Again, the order of the matches DO NOT represent the strength of the match.

(I added the list of numbers to the left for ease of reference and blocked out several letters of the match names in order to protect these people’s privacy because, again, I do not have their permission to post their names AND it would be a violation of FTDNA’s Terms of Service, Section 6, C (iv) not to do so.)

(Screenshot taken 8/30/2020.)

  1. The male subject traces his paternal and maternal lines are from Texas. Email extension is from the USA. The maternal line traces back to North America.
  2. The male subject entered no family information. Unable to determine origin for the mitochondrial DNA.  The email address extension is from the USA.
  3. The female subject’s maternal tree traces back to a Naomi Smith, b. 30 Nov. 1890, Ontario, Canada; d. 1957, Ontario, Canada. The maternal line traces back to North America. Email extension is from the USA.  Ancestral Surnames: “Abrook  Abrook (Aybrooke)  Abruk (Abrook)  Alic  Anna Barbar  Armes (England)  Bailey (New Jersey USA; England)  BARBERIE  Barnes  Bate  Bay  Becker  BOSWELL  Bottom  Boutereau  Brinqueman  Brooke  Brown  Bulkeley  Carter  Catherin  Child  Constable  Daniels  Danton  Davis  De Cacheleu  Debien  Earle  Elizabet  Engelie Angelin  Franklin  Fulman  Gilbert  Gosse  Groves (England)  Harvey (England)  Haus  Hausen  Haverland  Hayward  Hinchley  Hog  Hogben  Holmes  Hook  Hutchins  Hyde  Ingram  Jarvis  Jenet Jea  Judit  Keep  Keepe  Kennett  Keyes  Knight  Lamolle  Leeds  Lindridge  Long  Mar  MARSH  Maxted  McBain  McLachlan  Minchin, a.k.a.Minchel (Manchester, England)  Monforde  Orrell  Osborne  Owre  Pagden  Pierson  Poolyn  Pritchard  Rae  Reffay  Reffi  Reid  Roy Laliberte Ancetre  Schutt (England; Germany)  Sithers (Sythers )  Smith (Ancaster ON; New Jersey, MA, USA; England)  Smythe  Soole  Souplis  Sprackling  Stevens  Stressinger  Stuppell  Sumbling  Sythers  Ter Himpel  Terry  Van Den Wyngaard  Van Singel Himpel  Veronne  Wallace (Ontario Cda; Scotland)  Worley  Myers (New Jersey, USA)  Clark (New Jersey, USA)  House (New Jersey USA, Germany)  Filman (New York USA, Germany)  Horning (Pennsylvania USA, Germany)  Juncker (Pennsylvania USA; France)  Richardson (Pennsylvania USA)  Walrath (New York USA; Germany)  Bonham (New Jersey USA; England, France)  Alfred (New Jersey USA)  Marlett (New Jersey USA; France)  Ritter/Ridder (New York USA; Germany)  Seigfried (Pennsylvania USA; Germany)  Karcher (France)  Bruch (France)  Keyser (Pennsylvania USA; Germany)  Dunham (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; England)  Clemson (Pennsylvania USA; England)  Wright (Pennsylvania, England)  Green (England)  Hinckley (Massachusetts USA; England)  Bloomfield (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; England)  Fuller (Massachusetts, New Jersey USA; England)  Bishop (England)  Hunt (New York, New Jersey USA; England)  Burroughs (New York USA; England)  Jessup (Connecticut, New York USA; England)  Stephens (Connecticut USA; England)  Lathrop (Massachusetts USA; England)  Roy (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; Scotland)  Gordon (New Jersey USA; Scotland)  Pettit (New Jersey, New York USA; England)  Freeman (New Jersey USA; England)  Portelance (Quebec; France)  Mount (New Jersey, Rhode Island USA; England)  McFarlane (New Jersey USA)  Shotwell (New Jersey USA; England)  Moore (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; England)  Joseph (New Jersey USA; Scotland)  Gautron (Quebec; France)  Rhea (New Jersey, USA)  Cox (New Jersey USA; England)  Heath (New Jersey, New York USA; England)  Burton (New Jersey USA; England)  Bowne (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; England)  Stout (New Jersey, Indiana USA;)  Ilsley (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; England)  Robbins (New Jersey, Connecticut USA; England)  Potter (New Jersey, Connecticut USA; England)  Dubois (Quebec; France)  Forgues (Quebec; France)  Robineau (Quebec; France)  Hogh (New Jersey USA)  Hampton (New Jersey; Scotland)  Riggs (Scotland)  Waters (New Jersey USA; England)  Cooke (New Jersey, Massachusetts USA; England)  Soole (Massachusetts USA; England)  Doan (England)  Faubert (France)  Bissonette (Quebec; France)  D’Allon (Quebec; France)  Borden (New Jersey, Rhode Island USA; England)  Wall (New Jersey USA; England)  Blashford (New Jersey, New York USA)  Mellowes (New York USA; England)  Barrett (Pennsylvania USA; England)  Jenkins (Massachusetts USA; England)  Bing  Silcox (Pennsylvania USA; England).”
  4. *The male subject was born in Oklahoma. The mitochondrial line for the subject ends at L. Burroughs, b. 1800, Virginia; d. 1840, Alabama (was married to John A. Gibson.) The maternal line traces back to North America. Email extension is from the USA.  (Subject Nos. 9 and 11 appear to be related.) Ancestral Surnames: “Atteberry  Attebery  Attebery (Illinois, Texas, Oklahoma)  Atterbury  Atterbery  Andrews  Andrews/ J  Bushrod  Bennett  Brooks  Burroughs  Bruton  Bruton (Texas, Oklahoma)  Coffey  Cooper  Clement  Carpenter  Davis  Deweese  Dickson  Ennis  Feagley  Feagley?  Floyd  Floyd (South Carolina, Alabama)  Fulmer  Fulmer/ Jr  Forrest  Gibson  Gillam  Heffington  Hurst  Lowe  Lucas  Leitner  Langford  Lowry  Lowrey  Lowry (Illinois, Oklahoma)  Moss  Moeck (Meck)  McMahon  Mitchel  Medley  Melton  Mueller  Martin  Martin (Illinois, Texas, Oklahoma)  Newton  Pate  Pilkinton  Robinette  Roberts  Rutherford  Seip  Shepard  Scott  Stepp  Stapp  Setzler  Stratton  Simpson  Shamberger  Terry  Tart  Volma (Miller)  Vollmer (Fulmer)  Vollmer  Wofford  Whitaker  Whitlock  Wallace  Wallace (South Carolina, alabama, texas, oklahoma) ” (Emphasis added.)
  5. The female subject had no family tree. Lists Britta as the female ancestor. There is no origin listed for the mitochondrial DNA.  Email extension traces to the USA.  Ancestral Surnames: Edwards (AL),  Edins/Eddins (SC, GA, AL),  McGuire (PA, GA, AL),  Jones (NC, GA, AL),  Dennis (NC, GA & AL),  Soards/Swords/Sowards (PA,GA & AL),  Green/Greene (NC & AL),  Helton (GA & AL),  Kelley (GA, AL),  Hendricks/Hendrix (SC, AL),  Howard/Howart (GA, AL),  Colvin/Calvin (GA, AL).  Other surnames listed: Unger (Saxony, German & IL),  Pinson (GA, AL),  Sandner/Santner (Saxony, Germany, IL)  Best (IL)  Kinney (IL)  Purdy (NC, SC & IL)  Unger (Saxony, Germany)  McGuire (PA, GA & AL).
  6. The male subject posts a family tree with the maternal line tracing back to Jemina Sill, b. 1743 Connecticut; d. 1817, Connecticut. The maternal line traces back to North America. The email address traces back to the USA.  Ancestral Surnames: “Abbott (RI)  Adams (ENG/MA)  Alden (ENG/MA/RI/CT)  Beach (CT)  Bugbee (ENG/CT)  Bacon (CT)  Balch (MA/CT)  Bullen (?/MA)  Blanchard (ENG)  Ballentine (VA/OH/KS)  Bennett (MA)  Bowyer (ENG)  Bracket (?)  Bartholomew (ENG/MA/CT/PA)  Bartram (CT/NY)  Braley (RI)  Bringham (ENG/MA)  Copland (ENG)  Couch (ENG/CT)  Coley (?)  Clough (ENG)  Canfield (CT)  Corbett (ENG/CT/MA/NY/PA)  Crosby (ENG/MA/VT)  DAWE (Cornwall, England)  DUDLEY (CT/NY)  Dudley (CT)  Dane (ENG/MA)  Duncombe (ENG)  Dunlap (?)  Daniels (MA)  Edwards (MA)  Elson (OH)  Eliot (ENG/MA)  FISH (Eng/MA/CT/NY)  Foster (ENG/MA)  Fitch (MA?/CT?)  Faulkner (MA)  Frisbie (CT)  French (MA)  Gordon (MA)  Hopkins (RI/VT)  Hawkins (ENG/MA)  Heath (ENG/MA)  Hotchkiss (MA)  Hitchcock (CT)  Hutchings (Cornwall,ENG/WI/KS)  Hall (ENG/CT/NY)  Hawley (ENG/CT)  Hull (CT?)  Holbrook (ENG/NY/CT)  Ingals (MA)  JONES (ENG/MA/CT)  Johnson (CT)  Leavitt (ENG)  LEACH (ENG/MA/PA/KS)  Littick (Germany/OH/KS)  Little (MA?)  Laden (VA/OH)  Lambert (?)  Lamson (MA)  Mules (Cornwall,Eng/WI)  Millington (CT/VT)  MOORE (Watertown, Jefferson Co., NY)  Merwin (CT)  NORTH (England/MA)  Pabodie (Eng/MA/RI/CT)  Penniman (MA)  PARSONS (England/CT/NY/KS)  Perkins (?)  Pratt (England/CT)  PRATT (CT)  Porter (Eng/MA)  Partridge (MA)  Roberts (VT)  Spaulding (VT)  Squire (ENG)  Staples (?)  Stevens (ENG/MA/CT/VT)  Sawtell (MA)  STERLING (CT/NY)  Sotheron (ENG/MA)  SILL (MA/CT)  Salisbury (Wales/MA)  Silliman (CT)  Sanford? (?)  Sams (?)  Seaman (RI, CT, NY, KS)  Seamans (ENG/MA/RI/VT/NY/KS)  Summers (MA/CT)  Tilden (Eng/MA/RI)  Taylor (VA/OH/IA)  Tomlinson (CT)  Thierbach (Germany/WI/KS)  Whipple (Eng/MA/VT/NY)  Westcott (Eng/RI/VT/MA/NY)  Wood (Eng?/MA)  Whitmore (MA)  Woodworth (MA)  Wilcock (?)  Wilcoxson (CT)  Walker (CT)  Waldron? (MA) Wheeler (?)  Willard (?)  Warren (MA)  Warner (RI)  Yate (ENG?).” (Emphasis added.)
  7. The male subject lists no family tree. The female-line ancestor is listed as “William Boyd, 1831.”  The email address traces back to the USA.
  8. The female subject’s information does not contain a tree; however, the profile lists the maternal surnames as Doggett/Read/Bridges/Austin. According to the tester’s maternal surname list which includes locations, the maternal line traces back to North America. The email extension traces back to the USA.  The maternal surnames listed: “Doggett (Texas)  McKaughan (Texas & Tenn)  Riggs (Texas)  Read/ Reed (Texas)  Taylor (Tenn).”
  9. The male subject’s mother, Henrietta Refshauge, b. 1920; d. 1997.  The email traces back to the USA.  Surnames listed in the profile: “Jacobs (Germany), Refshauge (Denmark),  Whitacre (England).”  Unable to determine if the mitochondrial line goes back to Denmark, only that the tester self-identifies her being of Danish ancestry according to the subject’s profile.
  10. The female subject was born in Kentucky.  She lists Delphia Sweeney as the earliest known ancestor; however, that is not the direct female-line ancestor for the subject listed in her family tree.  The subject’s direct female line goes back to Susan Brady, b. 10 Dec. 1840, Marion Co., Kentucky; d. 17 Dec. 1912, Jefferson Co., Kentucky.  The maternal line traces back to North America. Her email extension traces back to the USA.  Ancestral Surnames: “ALLGAR,  ALDEN, John (Essex Co. England),  ALLEN,  ALLERTON, Isaac (England),  BUCK  BUCKET or BECKET (England),  BEST (England), BUCKLAND,  BOOTH,  BATE,  BOYD,  BAILEY,  BELCHER, BOLTWOOD,  BURR,  BOWERS,  BARSTOW,  BRADY,  BARRET, BIRD,  BARTLETT,  BROWNE,  BARNES,  BRAINARD,  COOPER,  COOKE, Francis (England),  CUSHMAN (England),  CLAYTON,  COLEMAN,  CLARK,  CROW,  CHURCH, Richard (England),  CARTWRIGHT,  CRAINE,  CORNISH,  DAVIS, DUVALL,  DOVER,  DUDLEY,  DOLBIAR,  DOLING,  DENSLOW alias Baile,  DYER,  DRAKE,  DRYDEN,  Everett,  EISON,  FISHER,  FIELDING,  FYLER,  FULLERTON,  GOODWIN,  GILBERT,  GILLESPIE,  GILLETT,  GRAY,  GRAVES,  GRIFFITH,  GRISWOLD,  GARLAND,  GORHAM (England),  GRANT (Ireland),  HOPKINS,  HUBBARD,  HAYES,  HAWES,  HAZEL,  HOSKINS,  HUTCHINSON,  HAWLEY, Joseph (Derbyshire, England),  Holland,  HILLYER,  HAMBY,  HUMPHREY,  JONES,  KELSEY,  LORD,  MAHIEU Hester (Canterbury, England),  McFALL,  MASON,  MULLINS (England),  MANNLY,  MINOR,  MONARCH,  MARBURY,  MARSH,  MORTON,  NASH,  NORRIS,  O’HARA (N Ireland),  O’Hara, Slayden, Welch, Grant (Kentucky),  POPE,  PISTOLE,  PETERSON,  PHELPS,  PHILLIPS,  PALMER,  PLUMMER,  PORTER,  ROE,  RICE,  RUCKER,  RUCKER,  ROGERS,  REDER,  ROWLAND,  SCOVILL,  SCOVIL,  SPENCER,  STUDLEY Joanna (England),  STANTON,  STANDISH Alexander (England),  SOULE,  SLAYDEN,  SHAILER,  SWEENEY,  SAMPSON  Henry (Bedfordshire, England),  TULLOCK,  TULLOCH,  VESSEY,  WHITE,  WHITBREAD,  WELCH (UK),  WELLES,  WILCOX,  WILSON,  WALKER,  WILLIAMSON,  WHEELER,  WINTERS WARREN.
  11. The female subject’s mitochondrial line on her family tree ends at Ella Trainum/Trantham, b. 1856, Maury Co. Tennesse, d. unknown.  Email extension traces to the USA. Ancestral Surnames:  Boyd/Boyt (NC/TN)  Bunn/Bourne (VA/NC)  Barfield (NC)  Burns (NC/TN)  Caperton (tn)  Caperton (KY, TN)  Caperton (Va/KY/TN)  Chisem (TN)  Chisum/Chisholm (TN)  Coor/Core (VA/NC/TN)  Coor (VA/NC/TN)  Crawford (Scotland/VA/NC/TN)  Crawford (NC/TN)  Croom (VA/NC/TN)  Dixon (TN)  Dickson/Dixon (TN)  Dillingham (TN)  Faulkner/Fortner (SC/TN/MS)  Fletcher (AL/TN)  Fortner (MS/TN)  Gillingham (TN)  Gravitt (Va/NC/TN)  Grantham (VA/NC/TN)  Howell (NC/TN)  Hollowell (NC/TN)  Holmes (NC)  Hunter (NC)  Harris (VA/KY/TN)  Hardy/Hardee (VA/NC)  Herring (NC)  Joslin (TN)  Kinchen (VA)  Litzy (AL)  Litzy/Litsy (Al)  Malone (AL)  Malone (AL/TN)  Ruffin (Va)  Raiford (VA/NC)  Sasser (NC/TN)  Stewart/Stuart (AL/TN)  Shelton (VA/KY)  Solomen (VA/NC/TN)  Taylor (VA/NC/TN)  Trainum/Trantham (NC/MS/TN)  Vaughn (VA/NC)  Woods (VA/TN/MS)  Wilson (TN)  Young (VA)

12. The female subject’s mitochondrial line on her family tree ends at L. Burroughs, b. 1800, Virginia; d. 1840, Alabama (was married to John A. Gibson). The maternal line traces back to North America. Email extension traces to the USA. (Subject Nos. 4 and 12 appear to be related.)  Ancestral Surnames:  Barfield (NC)  Burns (NC/TN)  Caperton (tn)  Caperton (KY, TN)  Caperton (Va/KY/TN)  Chisem (TN)  Chisum/Chisholm (TN)  Coor/Core (VA/NC/TN)  Coor (VA/NC/TN)  Crawford (Scotland/VA/NC/TN)  Crawford (NC/TN)  Croom (VA/NC/TN)  Dixon (TN)  Dickson/Dixon (TN)  Dillingham (TN)  Faulkner/Fortner (SC/TN/MS)  Fletcher (AL/TN)  Fortner (MS/TN)  Gillingham (TN)  Gravitt (Va/NC/TN)  Grantham (VA/NC/TN)  Howell (NC/TN)  Hollowell (NC/TN)  Holmes (NC)  Hunter (NC)  Harris (VA/KY/TN)  Hardy/Hardee (VA/NC)  Herring (NC)  Joslin (TN)  Kinchen (VA)  Litzy (AL)  Litzy/Litsy (Al)  Malone (AL)  Malone (AL/TN)  Ruffin (Va)  Raiford (VA/NC)  Sasser (NC/TN)  Stewart/Stuart (AL/TN)  Shelton (VA/KY)  Solomen (VA/NC/TN)  Taylor (VA/NC/TN)  Trainum/Trantham (NC/MS/TN)  Vaughn (VA/NC)  Woods (VA/TN/MS)  Wilson (TN)  Young (VA).

13. The male subject’s maternal line in the tree he provided goes back further than Martha Ellen Fraley for the direct female line. It goes back to Barbara Allen Fultz, b. 3 Apr. 1822, Carter, Kentucky; d. 21 Jan. 1912, Rowan Co., Kentucky.  The maternal line traces back to North America. The email extension traces back to USA.  Ancestral surnames:  Austin, Botts, Blair, Duncan, Fox, Griggs, Hyatt, Lunger, Lindsay, Metcalf, Mailley, Miller, Opie, Parker, Shackleford, Scott, Shrout, Wheatley, Waltz, Williams.

14. Audalene Starr.  The incomplete profile was written by Sarah with her email address stating that the maternal line goes to a “Mary Last Name Unknown” and directing readers to her blog.  Actually, the maternal line traces back to North America to my 6th great grandmother. Ancestral Surnames: Adkins (Cabell Co. WV)  Johnson (Cabell Co. WV).

15. The female test subject’s mitochondrial line traces back to Julia Belle Welch, b. 13 Jan. 1901, Kentucky; d. 1990, Kentucky.  The email traces back to the USA.  Ancestral Surnames: “O’Hara, Slayden, Welch, Grant, Gilbert, Davis, Cartwright, Rowland, Gillespie, Mayflower lines incl Soule, Allerton, Cooke, Alden, Standish, Samson.”  Ancestral Surnames: “Brady (MD – KY)  Davis (VA – KY)  Gillespie (VA – KY)  Grant (England – MA – CT – KY)  O’Hara (Ireland – KY)  Pistole (VA – KY)  Soule – Mayflower (England – MA – OH – KY)  Slayden (VA – KY)  Welch (Ireland – KY)  Winters (NC – TN – KY).”

16. The male subject has no mitochondrial line information entered. No family tree.  The email address traces back to the USA.

17. The male subject’s mitochondrial line traces back to Emma Graves, b. 1867 Kansas.  Subject states he is a second-generation Texan and “descendant of the Colonist John McCubbin 1630 Ayrshire- 1685 Maryland Colony.”  The mitochondrial line traces back to North America. Email address traces back to an encrypted email service.  Ancestral Surnames:  “Adams (Arkansas)  Adams (Spartanburg, SC, Faulkner Co, AR)  Bevans (WA, IA, CA)  Cook (Arkansas)  Cotner (Logan Co, AR)  Dollar (Union Co. AR)  Daniel (Grapevine, Texas)  Daniel (WA)  Ethridge (Chatooga, GA, Conway Co, AR)  Earnhart (MS, AR)  Graves (LA or AR)  Graham (Indiana)  Green (Bedford Co, TN, Tarrant Co, TX)  Grounds (AR)  Hackett (NY, PA)  Hoaglin (Tarrant Co, TX)  Harrison (AR)  Johnson (Arkansas)  Johnson (Union Co, AR)  King (AL)  Lanier (Granville Co, NC)  McCubbin (Paris, AR)  Mustin (Pelican, LA)  McIntosh (Arkansas)  McIntosh (MS, Polk Co, AR)  Polk (AL, Desoto P, LA)  Redner (NY, PA)  Stanley (AL, Logan Co. AR)  Swan (TN, Faulkner Co, AR)  Smith (NY, TX)  Taylor (AL, Pelican, LA)  Terrell (AL, AR)  Vaughn (AR, TN)  Walton (OH, Skamania Co, WA)  Williams (IN, Franklin, AR).”

18. The female test subject inadvertently states that her maternal line goes back to a Mary French, b. 1780, d. 1872. In pulling up her family tree, her mitochondrial line traces back to an Elizabeth Callihan, b. 11 Apr. 1830, location unknown; d. 29 Oct. 1916, Osgood, Missouri.  Email address traces back to the USA.  Ancestral Surnames:  “Albertson  Anna  Bicknell  Blount  Burnley  Cut  Callihan  Cain  Christiana  Cartwright  Davis  Doolin  Eoff  Edwards  Elizibeth  Elgin  Elgin/ S  Farrant  Hubble  Helm  Haines  Hurbert  Herbert  Jones  Kelsey  Knox  Meeks  McNutt  Moore  Moore, Fisherman & Ferryman  Moore  Powell  Phillips  Quaggin  Quickin  quaggin  Rush  Scott  Starns  Tunnell  Terhune  unknown  Unknown Dixon  Urton  Venicomb  Vanderford  Woods ”

19. Male subject’s mitochondrial line traces back to Mary French, b. 20 Sep 1780, Spartanburg, Spartanburg, South Carolina; d. 21 Aug 1872, Jefferson City, Jefferson, Tennessee.  The mitochondrial line traces back to North America. Email extension traces back to the USA.  Subject No. 19 and Subject No. 22 appear to be related. Ancestral Surnames: “Aebi Aeschelman  Alexander  Ann  Anderson  Baughman Bauman Baumann  Bailey  Ball  Bellis Belles Bellas Bellisfelt Bellesfelt Boellesfeld/t Böllesfelt Bellows (KY, VA, NJ, PA, NY, Germany, Holland)  Blackburn  Blaekley Blakeley Blakely  Bomberger  Bray  Beyer Boyer Baer  Bowers  Bricker  Brown  Bryan  Branston  Brindle  Chaney  Campbell  Conner  Davidson  Douglas Douglass  Dawson  Dazier  Duckworth  Delabaugh  Eby Ebi  Fawsyde  Fleming Funck Funk  Finley  Frazer  Fritzinger  Franey  French (Raritan Landing, Middlesex, NJ, USA)  Gifford  Gass  Good Guth Gutt Gut  Goumann  Gerber  George  Howe  Huber  Hutchinson  Hutton  Hershey  Harlan  Horn  Hernley  Jay  Jones  Jarbo  Kolb  Knapp  Kerr  Krey  Kreybill Kraybill Krahenbuhl Krehbiel ((PA, GE, SZ))  Kirsch  Kreider Greider  Lytle  Landis  McFerran  McClung  McGrew  McRae  Midkiff  Mullhaupt  Minter  Moore  Mayer  Myer  Myers  Marti  Morton  Martin  Nash  Nissley Nisley Knussli Nusli  Nichols  Newman  Olden  Pitzge  Pulisvelt Pulis (possible ancestor)  Pladt Blatti  Prescott  Parker  Ray  Reiff  Robinett  Roberts  Robertson  Reist  Read  Rhode  Roth  Reinhart  Sizemore  Sechrist Siegrist  Stubblefield  Steiner  Sellers  Sensenig  Smith  Snyder  Schneider  Snyder Schneider  Sommer  Scripture  Vanhauton Vanhoutan Vanhouten Van Houten Van Houtan  Wishart  Wyatt  Witmer Witwer  Wilson  Walker  Wayne  Wright  ”

20. Male subject who lists his earliest known female ancestor as Judy Gale Crowsey. His family tree entries are listed as private.  No ancestral surnames listed.  The email extension traces back to the USA.

21. Male test subject who lists his earliest known female ancestor as “Elizabeth Adeliah Baker, m. Orren J. Winstead 1884.” His family tree traces his mitochondrial line to Elizabeth Baker, b. 1861, location unknown; d. 1948, Wilson Co., North Carolina.   Email extension traces back to the USA. Ancestral surnames: “Baker (Wilson Co. NC)  Joyner (Nash/Edgecombe Co. NC) Winstead (Wilson Co, NC).” (Emphasis added.)

22. Female test subject. Appears to be related to Subject No. 19.  Her family tree traces her mitochondrial line to Mary French, b. 20 Sep 1780, Spartanburg, Spartanburg, South Carolina; d. 21 Aug 1872, Jefferson City, Jefferson, Tennessee.  Maternal line traces back to North Amerca. Email extension traces back to the USA. Ancestral surnames: “Aebi  Aeschelman  Ann  Anderson  Bailey  Bellis  Bomberger  Bonhame  Baumann Bauman Baughman  Bar Baer Bär  Beyer Boyer Baer  Bricker  Bryan  Branston  Brindle  Chadwick  Cheney Chaney  Douglass Douglas  Delabach Dellenbach Dallenbach Delabaugh  Dierstli  Eby Ebi  Fawsyde  Fleming  Funck Funk  Frazer  Fritzinger  Franey  French  Gifford  Gass  Good Guth Gutt Gut  Guth Good Gutt Gut  Giles  Goumann  Gerber  George  Gordon  Huber  Hershey  Horn  Horn Horne  Hernley  Jones  Kolb  Kerr  Kaer  Krey  Kraybill Krahenbuhl Krehbiel  Kirsch  Kreider Greider  Landis  Midkiff  Mullhaupt  Minter  Moore  Myer  Myers  Marti  Martin  Nash  Nissley Knussli Nusli Nisley  Nichols  Newman  Olden  Pitzge  Pladt Blatti  Rae  Reiff  Reist  Read  Rhode  Roth  Reinhart  Sizemore  Sechrist Siegrist  Stubblefield  Steiner  Sellers  Sensenig  Smith  Schmitt  Snyder  Schneider  Snyder Schneider  Sommer  Wyatt  Witmer  Witwer  Wilson  Willson.”

23. Female test subject. (Keziah test subject.) Email address traces back to the USA. No maternal or paternal information listed. The “About Me” section lists “Direct Descendant of Parker Adkins & his wife, Mary LNU.” No ancestral surnames listed. (We know this is the test administered by Lynda Davis-Logan and that the maternal line traces back to North America.) Please see top of this page for Jeane’s descent from Parker Adkins and Mary Last Name Unknown.

Summary

On the subject of the shared mitochondrial haplotype of Audalene Starr and Jeane Chaffin, once again, we seem to have diametrically opposed views.  The blog owner’s statement that “The DNA results of Audalene Starr and Jeane Chaffin could not possibly match exactly if Charity and Keziah Adkins had been half-sisters with different mothers.  Instead, the DNA has proved the two were full sisters.” This statement is blatantly incorrect.  That common female ancestor (whose mtDNA contained the EXACT mutations, including the missing and extra) could have lived hundreds or thousands of years ago; i.e., my third cousin Costa Hill and I share identical mitochondrial DNA and we ARE NOT sisters, full or otherwise…my cousin John Blake and I share identical mitochondrial DNA and we ARE NOT sisters, full or otherwise…my great grandfather Elba Jarrell and I share identical mitochondrial DNA (yes, this is correct) and he and I ARE NOT sisters, full or otherwise…the list of examples could go on and on for hundreds or thousands of years.   Accordingly, the blog author is either misinformed or is advancing a view that she should know is false.

Facts that cannot be ignored:

  • Audalene and Jeane BOTH have strong and consistent Native American results in both the Native American Fingerprint Plus test (STR/CODIS) and GEDmatch Eurogenes K9b admixture utility. (The same can be said for all family members who have tested . Those test results can be found at the end of the main blog post after “Conclusion.”)
  • Post analysis, Audalene and Jeane’s mitochondrial DNA is most decidedly NOT predominantly English and Irish.
  • Audalene and Jeane’s mitochondrial DNA has no match in the world (in vitro test results — NOT in silico test results), further proving, why it is so very important to analyze missing and extra mutations in order to determine the true origins of a haplotype.
  • Two pieces of Audalene and Jeane’s mitochondrial DNA is more typically found in Haplogroup A — which is an “accepted” Native American haplogroup; and one piece of their mitochondrial DNA is very deep-rooted and is more typically found in Haplogroups A and X — which are “accepted” Native American haplogroups.
  • EVERY SINGLE PIECE of Audalene and Jeane’s mitochondrial DNA — including the missing and extra mutations — match pieces of mitochondrial DNA of participants in the first two phases of the Native American DNA study being conducted by the authors of “Cherokee DNA Studies, Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong.” In fact, Audalene has been enrolled as a participant in the third phase of the study.
  • We cannot assume because their haplogroup was classified as “H” that it is not Native American in origin.

Conclusion

I think it is clear that when an outsider makes counterclaims about another family’s racial or ethnic makeup (especially when it comes to tracing Native American heritage), that person needs to perform a full and complete study of the entire family, including interviews of family members, as well as fully analyzing the relevant DNA data. One cannot simply rely on mitochondrial DNA — especially if that DNA data gives a consensus rather than a specific result; and, just as important, it is imperative to test with a DNA company that has an extensive population database to compare an individual’s DNA. Further, when DNA studies are performed on another person’s family, the full, actual test results should be shared with the person(s) being tested and the actual rather than “edited” or incomplete versions should be posted if being published.

Long-standing oral traditions have a place in the DNA discussion, especially when DNA and other evidence supports those traditions; in other words, what I have said from the beginning and will continue to say is that oral tradition which is cross-referenced and confirmed by different family descendants who never knew each other cannot simply be discarded or treated as if it does not exist.  It isn’t a question of speculation or supposition.  It is simply giving a dignity to oral tradition which is quite consistent in its content.  

We are getting so close to having all the answers, so keeping an open mind to new developments and new methods of analysis is the best way for us to get to the truth.