Documents

*The entirety of this work is protected by copyright (see Copyright information section).

 

***UPDATE October 16, 2020: Please see the “Recent Developments” section (the entry for October 16, 2020) for information in regard to a significant endorsement of this blog.

 

March 28, 2021

Something to ponder…

I have been holding this piece of information for quite some time.  I discovered it while researching early Moravian records.  I decided to post this today because I believe I have stumbled upon something important and potentially telling.  Considering both pieces of information together, the entry in Schmick’s diary and the passage below written by General John Sevier following his interview of Cherokee chief Oconostota, may have just helped some of the pieces of my family puzzle fall into place…

This is Chief Cornstalk’s first meeting with Moravian Brother Schmick.  Original by Johann Jakob Schmick, an entry from his “Diary of the Small Indian Community in Gnadenhuetten at the Muskingum from the Month of March till April 27, 1775.”

3/7/1775:  2nd…noon after that we got to know from a messenger that the Shaw-chief from Meemkekak would be here soon.  When he arrived with his people, he dismounted his horse in front of the choir (of the church) and walked at the head of the group with a small wooden stamp in his hand, together with one captain and 2 councelors [sic] and the other men and women and they all came together at Marcus’ house where they were welcomed by our people.  They were all together, among them the daughter of old Paxnous.  I welcomed the chief, too, and he and the others were friendly.  They were soon lodged in 4 houses and got something to eat.  Some of them attended the evening meeting (service), but on March 3rd, the chief with his wife and all his people attended the earliest service.  After the service they looked at pictures, and a Mahican Indian, who was able to speak the Shawanoesh language, told them the story of the pictures.  They listened attentively to it as well as to some tunes.  Josua jun (Junior) played on the Spinett.  In the afternoon, the chief and 10 of his men came to our house and said:  ‘Brother, I have come to pay you a visit.”  I was delighted about this, some of our brethren were present, too, and our living room was crowded.  First of all I asked for his name, which was Semackqaan, a Welsh-kornstalk.  For that reason he had the wooden stamp with him.”  (Emphasis added.)

As mentioned, today I found a great piece of documentation contributed by Sondra Anice Barnes, a 5th great granddaughter of Gen. John Sevier, Tennessee’s first governor, in response to a request written to him in 1810 by a researcher into the history of Louisiana.  Gen. Sevier wrote the following:

Knoxville, 9 October, 1810

“Sir:
“Your letter of Aug.30 ult.,is before me. With respect to the information
you have requested, I shall with pleasure give you so far as my own
memory will now serve me; and also aided by a memorandum taken on the
subject, of a nation of people called the Welsh Indians. In the year 1782
I was on a campaign against some part of the Cherokees; during the route
I had discovered trace of very ancient tho’ regular fortifications.

“Some short time after the expedition I had an occasion to enter into a
negotiation with the Cherokee Chiefs for the purpose of exchanging
prisoners. After the exchange had been settled, I took an opportunity of
inquiring of a venerable old chief called Oconostota, who then and had
been for nearly sixty years the ruling chief of the Cherokee Nation, if
he could inform me what people it had been which had left such signs of
Fortifications in their Country and in PreColumbian Explorer Sites in the
Southeast particular the one on the bank of Highwassee River. The old
chief immediately informed me: “It was handed down by the Forefathers
that the works had been made by the white people who had formerly
inhabited the Country, and at the same time the Cherokees resided low
down in the country now called South Carolina; that a war had existed
between the two nations for several years. At length it was discovered
that the whites were making a number of large Boats which induced the
Cherokees to suppose they were about to Descend the Tennessee River. They
then assembled their whole band of warriors and took the shortest and
most convenient route to the Muscle Shoals in order to intercept them on
their passage down the river. In a few days the Boats hove in sight. A
warm combat ensued with various success for several days. At length the
whites proposed to the Indians that they would exchange prisoners and
cease hostilities, they would leave the Country and never more return,
which was acceded to; and after the exchange parted friendly. That the
whites then Descended the Tennessee down to the Ohio, thence down to the
big river (the Mississippi) then they ascended it up to the Muddy River
(the Missouri) and thence up that river for a great distance. That they
were then on some of its branches, but, says he, they are no more a white
people; they are now all become Indians, and look like the other red
people of the Country.

“I then asked him if he had ever heard any of his ancestors saying what
nation of people these whites belonged to. He answered: “He had heard his
Grandfather and Father say they were a people called Welsh; that they had
crossed the Great Water and landed first near the mouth of the Alabama
River near Mobile and had been drove up to the heads of the waters until
they had arrived at Highwassee River by the Mexican Indians who bad been
drove out of their own Country by the Spaniards.”

“Many years ago I happened in company with a French-man, who had lived
with the Cherokees and said he had formerly been high up the Missouri. He
informed me he had traded with the Welsh tribe; that they certainly spoke
much of the Welsh dialect, and tho’ their customs was savage and wild
yet many of them, particularly the females, were very fair and white, and
frequently told him that they had sprung from a white nation of people.
He also stated that some small scraps of old books remained among them,
but in such tattered and destructive order that nothing intelligent
remained in the pieces or scraps left. He observed, their settlement was
in an obscure quarter on a branch of the Missouri running through a bed
of lofty mountains. His name has escaped my memory.

“The chief Oconostota informed me: “An old woman in his nation called Peg
had some part of an old book given her by an Indian who had lived high up
the Missouri, and thought it was one of the Welsh tribe.” Before I had an
opportunity of seeing it, her house and all the contents burnt. I have
seen persons who had seen parts of a very old and disfigured book with
this old Indian woman, but neither of them could make any discovery of
what language it was printed in (neither of them understood languages,
but a small smattering of English).

“I have thus, Sir, communicated and detailed the particulars of your
request, so far as I have any information on the subject, and wish it
were more comprehensive than you will find it written.”  (Emphasis added.)

 

March 27, 2021

Cousin Kenny Adkins shared this wonderful document with me today.  Here’s what he says, “I shared this on the Adkins Family History.  It appears to be a letter or note from Mary Adkins (daughter of William and Elizabeth Parker Atkinson) asking that they grant Littleberry Adkins a license to marry her daughter Nancy Adkins.  It appears to be a signature, I’m assuming, Mary wrote the note.”  (Littleberry was Nancy’s first cousin.)  Another example that our Adkins family could read and write!

March 21, 2021

Clark Gray was kind enough to share a photo of one of the historic Adkins mills.  Mills were in the Adkins blood from very earliest Colonial times and this is a great example of their being well built to stand the test of time.  

“The Adkins/Hurt Mill which stood on the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River in Mt. Pisgah, Wayne County, KY. Built by Benjamin Adkins, son of Owen Adkins. These pictures were made by the late Doug Blevins. The black and white photo was made in the 1960s and the colored photo in 1978.”  Clark Gray, March 21, 2021

ADKINS MILL OLD CLARK GRAY

ADKINS MILL NEW CLARK GRAY

 

March 10, 2021

Native Americans weren’t so divided as many might think.  They did come together to meet common goals.  From John P. Brown’s book “Old Frontiers: the Story of the Cherokee Indians from the Earliest Times to the State of Their Removal to the West, 1839…a record of, as the famous Civil War Historian Shelby Foote would call, stars in their courses; an historic meeting between three of my great grandfathers (Shawnee chief Cornstalk, Cherokee chiefs Attakullakulla and Oconostota) and one of my great grand uncles (Chief Dragging Canoe):

OLD FRONTIERS CORNSTALK P1

OLD FRONTIERS CORNSTALK P2

OLD FRONTIERS CORNSTALK P3

OLD FRONTIERS CORNSTALK P4

OLD FRONTIERS CORNSTALK P5

 

February 28, 2021

I found a great link to an actual microfilm of the National Archives’ Five Civilized Tribes, Cherokee Indians, Chickasaw Indians, Choctaw Indians, Creek Indians, Seminole Indians.  This one microfilm alone is 2516 pages.  It contains documents, letters and testimony of those who applied…so much more than some of the books out there.   Incredibly interesting reading!  

https://archive.org/details/applicationsfore0222unit/page/n1/mode/2up

Here are a few more,  “Record in the matter of the application for the enrollment as a citizen by intermarriage” of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole nations:

https://archive.org/details/applicationsfore0177unit/page/n1/mode/2up

https://archive.org/details/applicationsfore0320unit

 

February 1, 2021

Newspaper article from The Lima News, Sunday, October 14, 1973.  Article clipping courtesy of Jim Lee:

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE TRADERS TOOK ADVANTAGE

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE TRADERS TOOK ADVANTAGE P2

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE TRADERS TOOK ADVANTAGE P3

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE TRADERS TOOK ADVANTAGE P4

 

Newspaper article from The Lima News, Sunday, January 14, 1962. Article clipping courtesy of Jim Lee:

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE WAPAKONETA P1

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE WAPAKONETA P2

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE WAPAKONETA P3

BLOG NEWSPAPER ARTICLE WAPAKONETA P4

 

January 5, 2021

Two books which heavily document traders’ living with, marrying and working among the Shawnee and other Ohio Indians are “A Journal of Two Visits to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Year 1772 and 1773” by the Reverend David Jones (published in 1774) and “A Man of Distinction Among Them: Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier 1754-1799,” by Larry L. Nelson (I highly recommend this book):

It was said by Nelson that the cultural mediators of that time were usually “European men who had married Indian women and who maintained either a permanent or semipermanent residence among the western tribes…” (Emphasis added.)

In January 1773, there were 20 white people living at Chillicothe.

Alexander McKee was the son Thomas McKee (a well-known trader from western Pennsylvania) and a Shawnee mother.  Alexander married a Shawnee woman and the couple lived among the Shawnee bands living along the Scioto River.  In 1771 Alexander was appointed to the position of Indian agent and he ran the Indian department commissary at Fort Pitt.

1773, John Irwine, Indian Trader, lived at BluekJacket’s Town.  He had his main business at Chillicothe where he stored a considerable inventory of goods in a log building that he rented from an Indian who lived there.  Irwine sold his goods to inhabitants and visiting travelers.  Irwine was married to an Indian wife.

1773, Moses Henry, a native of Lancaster, a gunsmith and trader who pursued both professions at Chillicothe for several years.  He served both European and Native clients.  He was lawfully married to a white woman who had been a captive from a young age, “so young she speaks the language as well as any Indian.”  She was a daughter of Major Collins (at that time her father then was living near the Little Kanawha, on the Ohio).  Reverend Jones explained, “Mr. Henry lives in a comfortable manner, having plenty of good beef, pork, milk, etc.  His generosity to me was singular, and equal to my highest wishes.”

1773, Connor’s Town, a town consisting mostly of Shawnee and Delaware.  Reverend Jones commented that the log houses were “pretty good and well-shingled with nails.”  Mr. Connor, the namesake of the town, lived and owned a tavern there.  He was formerly a native of Maryland.  He and the chief Indian of the town were lawfully married to two white sisters who had formerly been captives.   Jones makes note that the women had probably been captured when they were very young because they spoke broken English and had “the very actions of the Indians.”

Abraham Kuhn, a Pennsylvania trader who married a Wayandot woman.  According to Nelson,  Kuhn was living near Lower Sandusky and he had become known as “Chief Coon,” “a respected tribal statesman and advisor during the late 1780s.”

January 3, 2021

Update January 3, 2020:  More documentation regarding Native American marriage practices can be found in the book “A Man of Distinction Among Them, Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier, 1754-1799,” by Larry L. Nelson.  Nelson writes  that “Native marriages were less permanent, though no less solemn, than white unions.  According to John Heckewelder, when Indians entered into marriage, it was understood by both partners that they would not live together any longer ‘than suits their pleasure or convenience.’  ‘The husband may put away his wife whenever he pleases,’ claimed the evangelist, ‘and the woman may in like manner abandon her husband.’  European men, particularly traders and merchants who resided in the Ohio Country, frequently adopted Indian mode of marriage and took Indian wives in the Indian fashion.”

In the book “A Journal of Two Visits made to the Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Years 1772 and 1773,” the author writes, “Poligamy [sic] is thought no crime — ‘Tis common to have several wives at the same time; nor dare one of them seem displeased lest she be dismissed.  On the smallest offense they part.”

December 28, 2020

I have found two more instances of the stature and independence of Shawnee women the book entitled “A Journal of Two Visits Made to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio in the Years 1772 and 1773,” by the Reverend David Jones, published in 1774:

On Wednesday, February 10, 1773, about a mile after crossing Salt Lick Creek, we find that Reverend Jones and his traveling companions arrived at a town named Dan Elleot’s Wife’s Town.  It turns out that the chief of the town was a rich Shawnee woman.  It was said she was Daniel Elleot’s “pretend wife.”  (In further research I have found that Daniel Elliot (Elleot) was, in fact, a signatory to many treaties with the Shawnee.)  In the town she took in travelers who wished to board with her.  She kept a large stock of cattle.  She supplied Reverend Jones and his companions with milk and sold them corn for their horses at a very exorbitant rate.  She had several slaves who were captured from Virginia during the last war who she considered her property.

Very shortly after this, we find another instance of a Shawnee woman’s having her own town.  On Friday, February 12, 1773, a few miles after departing Connor’s Town (a town of Shawnee and Delaware), Reverend Jones and company came to “The Little Shawnee Woman’s Town,” located “on the west side of the Muskingum,” which consisted of mostly Shawnee inhabitants.

November 5, 2020

Update 11/5/2020:  More well-documented whites who lived among the Native Americans who  married Native American wives, “The Indian World of George Washington,” by Colin G. Calloway:

Benjamin Hawkins, Superintendent of the Southern Indians, appointed by George Washington.  Hawkins was adopted by the Creeks.  He spoke Muskogee.  He had seven children with his common-law wife who was believed to be a Creek woman by the name of Lavinia Downs.

Richard Butler who was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs after the American Revolution, traded with the Shawnees and had a Shawnee wife.  In 1787 Butler “sent George Washington a vocabulary of Shawnee words compiled by himself and Delaware words by John Killbuck, ‘an Indian of that nation who has been Educated at Princetown College at the Expence of the U.S. & patronage of Congress.’  Along with the vocabulary, Butler sent Washington what little information he had been able to gather from ORAL TRADITION and their old men on the origins and history of the Shawnees.”  (Emphasis added.)

John Gibson, a Pittsburgh trader married the sister of Mingo chief John Logan (Tachnechdorus).  Gibson’s wife (the pregnant sister of Chief Logan) was brutally murdered by Daniel Greathouse and a group of thugs in the spring of 1774.  These twisted individuals strung Koonay up by her wrists, sliced her open and impaled the unborn baby on a stake.

Captain Abraham Bosomworth of the Royal American Regiment who served as an agent to the Cherokees had a Native American wife.

Robert Grierson, a Scottish trader, had five children with his Creek wife.  He owned a plantation, grew and manufactured cotton, owned 300 cattle, 30 horses.

November 3, 2020

Cousin Rick Lear was kind enough to share a wonderful map his neighbor Steve Barthelmas owns.  Rick informed me the map is a copy that is located in the Pickaway County Historical & Geneaolgical Society.

RICK LEAR MAP

 

October 10, 2020

I found a reply by Cousin Sarah Bird (Bea) from December, 2017 on Adkins Family History Group in response to a thread posted by the owner of the blog, where Cousin Sarah talks about the first-hand account in her family of her great aunt’s being taken into captivity by the Shawnee; in particular, that she was given over to the care Chief Cornstalk’s family and treated well:

SARAH BIRD AUNT CAPTIVE

Another account of being able to verify family oral tradition:

SARAH BIRD GRAHAM HISTORICAL MARKER

“History of the Graham Family,” Clayton, West Virginia, by David Graham, 1899.  Excerpt from the archived website of the Library of Congress.  I also own the book.

http://www.genealogymedia.com/transcriptions/history-of-the-graham-family/

p. 97:  “This account was given the writer substantially as stated by David W. Jarrett, who is a son of Elizabeth’s sister, Jane, and he says he has it from the lips of his mother.”  (Emphasis added.)

p. 93: “After becoming thoroughly convinced that Elizabeth had been carried into captivity, the next task of Col. Graham was to locate her whereabouts and, if possible, secure her return. Months of anxious and unceasing search located her among the Shawnee tribes, whose wigwams were [95] situated at what is now Chillicothe, Ohio. She had been adopted by a squaw of one of the chiefs of the Cornstalk family of that tribe and, while it was doubtless a source of great jo’.y [sic] to those fond parents to find their long-lost child alive and well and well cared for, though in the home of a savage chief, yet a new anxiety awaited them, but little less terrible than that which they had already experienced, the work of rescuing and seeing her once more around the hearthstone of their own home. To this task Col. Graham directed his energies and several times visited the Shawnee towns and as often met with new obstacles and disappointments, none of which were probably more heart-rending to him than to know that his child had learned to love her savage home, and that in turn she was loved and doted on by her adopted mother. As the tender twig is easily bent and made to grow in new directions, so were the inclinations of this innocent child readily diverted from the scenes of the past and made to love the passing events which surrounded [96] her, and she being well cared for and never mistreated by the Indians, it was but natural that she loved them. It is also said that before her return a love more passionate than that for her adopted tribe or mother had seized her youthful breast and that a young warrior would soon have claimed her for his “white” squaw. As to the truth of the story, that she had an Indian lover, we do not vouch, but having learned it from her own descendants, we think it worthy of mention. After fruitless efforts and at least two contracts, which were violated and backed down from by the Indians, Col. Graham finally succeeded in 1785 in ransoming and bring his daughter back home, after an absence of about eight years. The price paid for her release was the release of an Indian prisoner whom the whites held, thirty saddles and a lot of beads and other trinkets, and, according to the summing up of the various traditions, about $300 in silver.” (Emphasis added.)

October 4, 2020

OUR FAMILY COULD WRITE!  This disproves the speculation:

Adkins Family History Group, October 4, 2020:

Greg Napier:  “Petition from Kanawha County, Virginia dated 6 Dec 1808. Highlighted are two of My Napier ancestors who left Montgomery County after March 1801 in 4th Great Grandfather Thomas Franklin Napier 1778-1860 and His father Edmund Napier 1753-1834 who lived in Lee County, Virginia… Also at top of page some Adkins men signed… William, Sherrod, Jacob , and Isaac , James and Hezekiah…Cabell County, Virginia was formed the following year in 1809…”

BLOG ADKINS AND OTHER SIGNATURES

 

October 4, 2020

I found a very relevant 2001 post by Ronnie Adkins regarding DNA results that the owner of the blog re-posted in 2018:

RONNIE ADKINS ABOUT DNA TO SARAH ON MESSENGER

Nine years later, we now have a more accurate and complete picture of our family’s DNA — which does contain Native American DNA…our family DOES have Indian blood and we are so very proud of it!

 

October 3, 2020

Patricia Breed Everett discovered another instance of a family’s intermarrying with the Cornstalk family!

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P1

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P2

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P3

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P4

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P5

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P6

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P7

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P8

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P9

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P10

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P11

From the “Chronicals of Border Warfare,” by Alexander S. Withers, from the date 1769:  Colonel Ebenezer Zane, his brothers Silas and Jonathan, with some others visited the Ohio River “for the purpose of commencing improvements.”  (The Zanes were with Penn in Pennsylvania.  When he was nine, Isaac Zane had been taken captive by the Indians, taken to the Mad River in Ohio.  Isaac married an Indian woman.  He became a chief and lived out his life with the Indians.  As of the publication of “Chronicles of Border Warfare, his descendants still reside in Ohio.

Isaac Zane’s captivity and marriage to Wyandot Chief Tarhe, The Crane’s, half French daughter Myerrah is also documented in the book “The Other Trail of Tears,” by Mary Stockwell.

Signature of Wayandot Chief Tar-he the Crane on the second Treaty of Greenville signed on July 22, 1814 at Greenville, Ohio.  Native American signatories were from the Wyandot, Delaware, Shawnee, Seneca and Miami tribes:

Tar he the Crane signature

 

September 2, 2020

Sheila Jean Metcalf was kind enough to share information about a book containing information documenting more members of our Adkins family having lived among the Indians — in this instance for seven years!

“Early Morgan County,” by Arthur C. Johnson, published by the College of Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Kentucky and U.S. Department of Agriculture, published 1974

p. 110:

“The first Adkins that came into Morgan County was taken captive by the Indians.  His name was Charley, but most people called him “App”, [sic] or Appleton Adkins. He stayed with the Indians for seven years.  The Indians liked him so well, they gave him a peck of gold and sent him home.”
 
I tracked down and purchased my own copy.  I post a photo of the page referred to below:
 
 
MORGAN COUNTY BOOK P 110
 

August 27, 2020

More documentation that families that who were intermarried with this Adkins family were in the area and interacting and living among Native Americans from the very earliest of times.  (Permission to post granted to Dorene Soiret by Ralph Adkins.):

BLOG JACOB STOVER LIVING WITH THE INDIANS

BLOG JACOB STOVER LIVING WITH THE INDIANS RED LINE

August 2, 2020

Bluesky oral tradition as conveyed by Nancy “Nannie” Adkins as conveyed to son Rick Lear, member of the Sons of the American Revolution.  Permission for Dorene Soiret to post granted by Rick Lear:

“The Story of Little Berry and Charity Adkins, as related to my mother, as a small child.  Nancy ‘Nannie’ Adkins was born August 30, 1845 in Wayne County, WV. The daughter of Owen Adkins and Nary Jane Damron of Wayne County, Virginia. She married Jesse Queen in Boyd County, Kentucky on April 20, 1862. Following Jesse’s death in 1926, we find her living in 1930 with her son, James A Queen [in the house of her son] and his new wife, Nancy Melissa Duty. They married on February 12, 1905. Nannie Adkins Queen died February 18, 1936 in Cabell County, West Virginia.

“Nannie was the mother of my Grandfather James A Queen 1865-1951. Aunt Edith told me ‘Granny Nannie’ smoked a pipe and chewed tobacco. Aunt Edie’s job, as the youngest child, was to sweep the floors [dirt] and clean the fireplace hearth.  Grannie Nan would spit ’baccer juice’ onto to the hearth. Aunt Edie said, “I’d get so mad,” but Mommy would say, “she’s old and we love her.”

“Nannie Adkins Queen, ‘Granny Nan’ was the provider of many stories about the Adkins’ family.  She related to my Mother, Nila Mae Queen 1924-2015 and her sister, Nola Edith Queen 1928-2017, of how her mother would make the girls wear long sleeved dresses and bonnets, because the sun would turn them dark.  Of the Littleberry story, she told her grandchildren about how her Great-grandfather Littleberry and his sister Charity, came to be with the family.

“’One day, after a trip, Parker Adkins returned home and had two small children with him.  Both had Black hair and dark eyes and were very young. The story goes on that their mother had died and she was a Shawnee Princess by the name of Blue Sky.  Blue Sky was the daughter of the Legendary Chief Cornstalk, that was the Indian leader at the Battle of Pt Pleasant. The white men killed him and his son at a Fort.’”

July 7, 2020

More documentation regarding Bluesky’s being the daughter of Chief Cornstalk, contained in the book “The Heritage of Cabell County, West Virginia,” Vol. I, compiled by the KYOWVA Genealogical Society, ordered by proclamation of the County Commission of Cabell County, first printing published in 1996.

Please see page 96, the genealogical profile of Mr. Garnett Adkins, submitted by Mitchell F. Adkins on p. 96. There you will find noted as his grandparents: Chief Cornstalk, Bluesky, Parker Adkins, Charity Adkins as well as others contained in that profile of Mr. Adkins’s family.  Profile submitted by Mitchell F. Adkins.

To the right you will find the profile of John T. (Tradaughty) Adkins, a son of Charity Adkins and Randolph Adkins submitted by his 2nd great grandson Douglas Smith.

GARNETT ADKINS CABELL COUNTY BOOK

July 4, 2020

More documentation of heavy trade with the Native Americans and record of intermarriage with  whites EXACTLY where our Adkins and related families lived in Beech Fork even as late and later than 1850.

TWELVEPOLE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

(Article posted by Brenda Terry on Wayne County WV Genealogy FB page, from Ancestry.com.)
 
Outlined text reads:
 
“Incidentally, Alderson Bowen’s general store got much patronage from Indians.  They showed great respect for Alderson because he always kept several formidable pieces of personal artillery handy, including the squirrel gun he had carried into western Virginia from the old Dominion.
 
Alderson’s account book showed that his trade with the Indians was confided chiefly to salt and gunpowder.  There is an occasional entry showing domestication of an Indian, this being revealed by purchases of calico, leather for shoes and household equipment.
 
Mrs. Childers uncovered the name of a full blooded Indian in the account book who was a regular customer of Alderson Bowen’s.  This Indian married a white woman.  His descendants swarm in the Bowen area today.  They show their Indian heritage.  The women are vivid brunettes with coal black eyes, proud carriage and olive complexion.  The men are tall, strong and quick tempered.” (Emphasis added.)
 
*Coming soon:  Lynda Davis Logan details the area of the store, the proximity to our Adkins and related families and the significance of the article.
 

June 17, 2020

Mr. Charles Stackpole, a Shawnee man whose family had been adopted into the Cherokee Tribe of Oklahoma after removal, direct descendant of Chief Cornstalk’s daughter Oceana, personally had contact, e-mail correspondence with and sent this document via U.S. Mail to Debbie Adkins Vance:

“Debbie Adkins Vance:
 
“A post from Mr. Charles Stackpole, Cherokee Indian Reservation, Oklahoma. (Keep in mind the Shawnee were combined with the Cherokee on the trail of tears.)” 
Permission to post granted by Debbie Adkins Vance.
 
DEBBIES CHARLES STACKPOLE DOCUMENT
 
 

June 2, 2020

Robert Thompson, Administrator of the Adkins Family History Group page on FB posted this newspaper clipping.  Robert gave me permission to post here:

Ferguson and Adkins on Twelve Pole with an Indian Guide

“I found this article in the Huntington Advertiser of January 22, 1874. To my knowledge, this is the only reference I have seen about the members of the Ferguson family and Adkins family being guided by an Indian into the Twelve Pole Valley. First names are not included, but the Ferguson mentioned here is likely Samuel Ferguson who settled on Twelve Pole about 1802. The Adkins could be several. I think Littleberry is a likely candidate as he arrived in the region in the early 1800s. This story was written about seventy years after the Fergusons and Adkinses arrived in the Twelve Pole Valley and was within living memory of the events described. If the accounts are true, this helps provide credence to the theory that the Adkins family had close relations with the Indians.”

TROUTS HILL ARTICLE REPLACEMENT PT 2 WITH RED UNDERLINE

 
 
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ADKINS W NA GUIDE P2
 
 
 

Documentary evidence as to validity of this newspaper article from the book “History of West Virginia: In Two Parts,” by Virgil A. Lewis, 1889, pages 680-681:

BLOG INDIAN GUIDE EVIDENCE P1

BLOG INDIAN GUIDE EVIDENCE P2

 

November 24, 2019

 
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P1
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P2
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P3
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P4
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P5
 
 

*The entirety of this work is protected by copyright (see Copyright information section).

 

***UPDATE October 16, 2020: Please see the “Recent Developments” section (the entry for October 16, 2020) for information in regard to a significant endorsement of this blog.

January 5, 2021

Two books which heavily document traders’ living with, marrying and working among the Shawnee and other Ohio Indians are “A Journal of Two Visits to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Year 1772 and 1773” by the Reverend David Jones (published in 1774) and “A Man of Distinction Among Them: Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier 1754-1799,” by Larry L. Nelson (I highly recommend this book):

It was said by Nelson that the cultural mediators of that time were usually “European men who had married Indian women and who maintained either a permanent or semipermanent residence among the western tribes…” (Emphasis added.)

In January 1773, there were 20 white people living at Chillicothe.

Alexander McKee was the son Thomas McKee (a well-known trader from western Pennsylvania) and a Shawnee mother.  Alexander married a Shawnee woman and the couple lived among the Shawnee bands living along the Scioto River.  In 1771 Alexander was appointed to the position of Indian agent and he ran the Indian department commissary at Fort Pitt.

1773, John Irwine, Indian Trader, lived at BluekJacket’s Town.  He had his main business at Chillicothe where he stored a considerable inventory of goods in a log building that he rented from an Indian who lived there.  Irwine sold his goods to inhabitants and visiting travelers.  Irwine was married to an Indian wife.

1773, Moses Henry, a native of Lancaster, a gunsmith and trader who pursued both professions at Chillicothe for several years.  He served both European and Native clients.  He was lawfully married to a white woman who had been a captive from a young age, “so young she speaks the language as well as any Indian.”  She was a daughter of Major Collins (at that time her father then was living near the Little Kanawha, on the Ohio).  Reverend Jones explained, “Mr. Henry lives in a comfortable manner, having plenty of good beef, pork, milk, etc.  His generosity to me was singular, and equal to my highest wishes.”

1773, Connor’s Town, a town consisting mostly of Shawnee and Delaware.  Reverend Jones commented that the log houses were “pretty good and well-shingled with nails.”  Mr. Connor, the namesake of the town, lived and owned a tavern there.  He was formerly a native of Maryland.  He and the chief Indian of the town were lawfully married to two white sisters who had formerly been captives.   Jones makes note that the women had probably been captured when they were very young because they spoke broken English and had “the very actions of the Indians.”

Abraham Kuhn, a Pennsylvania trader who married a Wayandot woman.  According to Nelson,  Kuhn was living near Lower Sandusky and he had become known as “Chief Coon,” “a respected tribal statesman and advisor during the late 1780s.”

January 3, 2021

Update January 3, 2020:  More documentation regarding Native American marriage practices can be found in the book “A Man of Distinction Among Them, Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier, 1754-1799,” by Larry L. Nelson.  Nelson writes  that “Native marriages were less permanent, though no less solemn, than white unions.  According to John Heckewelder, when Indians entered into marriage, it was understood by both partners that they would not live together any longer ‘than suits their pleasure or convenience.’  ‘The husband may put away his wife whenever he pleases,’ claimed the evangelist, ‘and the woman may in like manner abandon her husband.’  European men, particularly traders and merchants who resided in the Ohio Country, frequently adopted Indian mode of marriage and took Indian wives in the Indian fashion.”

In the book “A Journal of Two Visits made to the Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Years 1772 and 1773,” the author writes, “Poligamy [sic] is thought no crime — ‘Tis common to have several wives at the same time; nor dare one of them seem displeased lest she be dismissed.  On the smallest offense they part.”

December 28, 2020

I have found two more instances of the stature and independence of Shawnee women the book entitled “A Journal of Two Visits Made to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio in the Years 1772 and 1773,” by the Reverend David Jones, published in 1774:

On Wednesday, February 10, 1773, about a mile after crossing Salt Lick Creek, we find that Reverend Jones and his traveling companions arrived at a town named Dan Elleot’s Wife’s Town.  It turns out that the chief of the town was a rich Shawnee woman.  It was said she was Daniel Elleot’s “pretend wife.”  In the town she took in travelers who wished to board with her.  She kept a large stock of cattle.  She supplied Reverend Jones and his companions with milk and sold them corn for their horses at a very exorbitant rate.  She had several slaves who were captured from Virginia during the last war who she considered her property.

Very shortly after this, we find another instance of a Shawnee woman’s having her own town.  On Friday, February 12, 1773, a few miles after departing Connor’s Town (a town of Shawnee and Delaware), Reverend Jones and company came to “The Little Shawnee Woman’s Town,” located “on the west side of the Muskingum,” which consisted of mostly Shawnee inhabitants.

November 5, 2020

Update 11/5/2020:  More well-documented whites who lived among the Native Americans who  married Native American wives, “The Indian World of George Washington,” by Colin G. Calloway:

Benjamin Hawkins, Superintendent of the Southern Indians, appointed by George Washington.  Hawkins was adopted by the Creeks.  He spoke Muskogee.  He had seven children with his common-law wife who was believed to be a Creek woman by the name of Lavinia Downs.

Richard Butler who was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs after the American Revolution, traded with the Shawnees and had a Shawnee wife.  In 1787 Butler “sent George Washington a vocabulary of Shawnee words compiled by himself and Delaware words by John Killbuck, ‘an Indian of that nation who has been Educated at Princetown College at the Expence of the U.S. & patronage of Congress.’  Along with the vocabulary, Butler sent Washington what little information he had been able to gather from ORAL TRADITION and their old men on the origins and history of the Shawnees.”  (Emphasis added.)

John Gibson, a Pittsburgh trader married the sister of Mingo chief John Logan (Tachnechdorus).  Gibson’s wife (the pregnant sister of Chief Logan) was brutally murdered by Daniel Greathouse and a group of thugs in the spring of 1774.  These twisted individuals strung Koonay up by her wrists, sliced her open and impaled the unborn baby on a stake.

Captain Abraham Bosomworth of the Royal American Regiment who served as an agent to the Cherokees had a Native American wife.

Robert Grierson, a Scottish trader, had five children with his Creek wife.  He owned a plantation, grew and manufactured cotton, owned 300 cattle, 30 horses.

November 3, 2020

Cousin Rick Lear was kind enough to share a wonderful map his neighbor Steve Barthelmas owns.  Rick informed me the map is a copy that is located in the Pickaway County Historical & Geneaolgical Society.

RICK LEAR MAP

 

October 10, 2020

I found a reply by Cousin Sarah Bird (Bea) from December, 2017 on Adkins Family History Group in response to a thread posted by the owner of the blog, where Cousin Sarah talks about the first-hand account in her family of her great aunt’s being taken into captivity by the Shawnee; in particular, that she was given over to the care Chief Cornstalk’s family and treated well:

SARAH BIRD AUNT CAPTIVE

Another account of being able to verify family oral tradition:

SARAH BIRD GRAHAM HISTORICAL MARKER

“History of the Graham Family,” Clayton, West Virginia, by David Graham, 1899.  Excerpt from the archived website of the Library of Congress.  I also own the book.

http://www.genealogymedia.com/transcriptions/history-of-the-graham-family/

p. 97:  “This account was given the writer substantially as stated by David W. Jarrett, who is a son of Elizabeth’s sister, Jane, and he says he has it from the lips of his mother.”  (Emphasis added.)

p. 93: “After becoming thoroughly convinced that Elizabeth had been carried into captivity, the next task of Col. Graham was to locate her whereabouts and, if possible, secure her return. Months of anxious and unceasing search located her among the Shawnee tribes, whose wigwams were [95] situated at what is now Chillicothe, Ohio. She had been adopted by a squaw of one of the chiefs of the Cornstalk family of that tribe and, while it was doubtless a source of great jo’.y [sic] to those fond parents to find their long-lost child alive and well and well cared for, though in the home of a savage chief, yet a new anxiety awaited them, but little less terrible than that which they had already experienced, the work of rescuing and seeing her once more around the hearthstone of their own home. To this task Col. Graham directed his energies and several times visited the Shawnee towns and as often met with new obstacles and disappointments, none of which were probably more heart-rending to him than to know that his child had learned to love her savage home, and that in turn she was loved and doted on by her adopted mother. As the tender twig is easily bent and made to grow in new directions, so were the inclinations of this innocent child readily diverted from the scenes of the past and made to love the passing events which surrounded [96] her, and she being well cared for and never mistreated by the Indians, it was but natural that she loved them. It is also said that before her return a love more passionate than that for her adopted tribe or mother had seized her youthful breast and that a young warrior would soon have claimed her for his “white” squaw. As to the truth of the story, that she had an Indian lover, we do not vouch, but having learned it from her own descendants, we think it worthy of mention. After fruitless efforts and at least two contracts, which were violated and backed down from by the Indians, Col. Graham finally succeeded in 1785 in ransoming and bring his daughter back home, after an absence of about eight years. The price paid for her release was the release of an Indian prisoner whom the whites held, thirty saddles and a lot of beads and other trinkets, and, according to the summing up of the various traditions, about $300 in silver.” (Emphasis added.)

October 4, 2020

OUR FAMILY COULD WRITE!  This disproves the speculation:

Adkins Family History Group, October 4, 2020:

Greg Napier:  Petition from Kanawha County, Virginia dated 6 Dec 1808. Highlighted are two of My Napier ancestors who left Montgomery County after March 1801 in 4th Great Grandfather Thomas Franklin Napier 1778-1860 and His father Edmund Napier 1753-1834 who lived in Lee County, Virginia… Also at top of page some Adkins men signed… William, Sherrod, Jacob , and Isaac , James and Hezekiah…Cabell County, Virginia was formed the following year in 1809..

BLOG ADKINS AND OTHER SIGNATURES

 

October 4, 2020

I found a very relevant 2001 post by Ronnie Adkins regarding DNA results that the owner of the blog re-posted in 2018:

RONNIE ADKINS ABOUT DNA TO SARAH ON MESSENGER

Nine years later, we now have a more accurate and complete picture of our family’s DNA — which does contain Native American DNA…our family DOES have Indian blood and we are so very proud of it!

 

October 3, 2020

Patricia Breed Everett discovered another instance of a family’s intermarrying with the Cornstalk family!

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P1

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P2

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P3

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P4

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P5

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P6

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P7

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P8

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P9

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P10

CORNSTALK ZANE ARTICLE P11

From the “Chronicals of Border Warfare,” by Alexander S. Withers, from the date 1769:  Colonel Ebenezer Zane, his brothers Silas and Jonathan, with some others visited the Ohio River “for the purpose of commencing improvements.  (The Zanes were with Penn in Pennsylvania.  When he was nine, Isaac Zane had been taken captive by the Indians, taken to the Mad River in Ohio.  Isaac married an Indian woman.  He became a chief and lived out his life with the Indians.  As of the publication of “Chronicles of Border Warfare, his descendants still reside in Ohio.

Isaac Zane’s captivity and marriage to Wyandot Chief Tarhe, The Crane’s, half French daughter Myerrah is also documented in the book “The Other Trail of Tears,” by Mary Stockwell.

Signature of Wayandot Chief Tar-he the Crane on the second Treaty of Greenville signed on July 22, 1814 at Greenville, Ohio.  Native American signatories were from the Wyandot, Delaware, Shawnee, Seneca and Miami tribes:

Tar he the Crane signature

 

September 2, 2020

Sheila Jean Metcalf was kind enough to share information about a book containing information documenting more members of our Adkins family having lived among the Indians — in this instance for seven years!

“Early Morgan County,” by Arthur C. Johnson, published by the College of Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Kentucky and U.S. Department of Agriculture, published 1974

p. 110:

“The first Adkins that came into Morgan County was taken captive by the Indians.  His name was Charley, but most people called him “App”, [sic] or Appleton Adkins. He stayed with the Indians for seven years.  The Indians liked him so well, they gave him a peck of gold and sent him home.”
 
I tracked down and purchased my own copy.  I post a photo of the page referred to below:
 
 
MORGAN COUNTY BOOK P 110
 

August 27, 2020

More documentation that families that who were intermarried with this Adkins family were in the area and interacting and living among Native Americans from the very earliest of times.  (Permission to post granted to Dorene Soiret by Ralph Adkins.):

BLOG JACOB STOVER LIVING WITH THE INDIANS

BLOG JACOB STOVER LIVING WITH THE INDIANS RED LINE

August 2, 2020

Bluesky oral tradition as conveyed by Nancy “Nannie” Adkins as conveyed to son Rick Lear, member of the Sons of the American Revolution.  Permission for Dorene Soiret to post granted by Rick Lear:

“The Story of Little Berry and Charity Adkins, as related to my mother, as a small child.  Nancy ‘Nannie’ Adkins was born August 30, 1845 in Wayne County, WV. The daughter of Owen Adkins and Nary Jane Damron of Wayne County, Virginia. She married Jesse Queen in Boyd County, Kentucky on April 20, 1862. Following Jesse’s death in 1926, we find her living in 1930 with her son, James A Queen [in the house of her son] and his new wife, Nancy Melissa Duty. They married on February 12, 1905. Nannie Adkins Queen died February 18, 1936 in Cabell County, West Virginia.

“Nannie was the mother of my Grandfather James A Queen 1865-1951. Aunt Edith told me ‘Granny Nannie’ smoked a pipe and chewed tobacco. Aunt Edie’s job, as the youngest child, was to sweep the floors [dirt] and clean the fireplace hearth.  Grannie Nan would spit ’baccer juice’ onto to the hearth. Aunt Edie said, “I’d get so mad,” but Mommy would say, “she’s old and we love her.”

“Nannie Adkins Queen, ‘Granny Nan’ was the provider of many stories about the Adkins’ family.  She related to my Mother, Nila Mae Queen 1924-2015 and her sister, Nola Edith Queen 1928-2017, of how her mother would make the girls wear long sleeved dresses and bonnets, because the sun would turn them dark.  Of the Littleberry story, she told her grandchildren about how her Great-grandfather Littleberry and his sister Charity, came to be with the family.

“’One day, after a trip, Parker Adkins returned home and had two small children with him.  Both had Black hair and dark eyes and were very young. The story goes on that their mother had died and she was a Shawnee Princess by the name of Blue Sky.  Blue Sky was the daughter of the Legendary Chief Cornstalk, that was the Indian leader at the Battle of Pt Pleasant. The white men killed him and his son at a Fort.’”

July 7, 2020

More documentation regarding Bluesky’s being the daughter or Chief Cornstalk, contained in the book “The Heritage of Cabell County, West Virginia,” Vol. I, compiled by the KYOWVA Genealogical Society, ordered by proclamation of the County Commission of Cabell County, first printing published in 1996.

Please see page 96, the genealogical profile of Mr. Garnett Adkins, submitted by Mitchell F. Adkins on p. 96. There you will find noted as his grandparents: Chief Cornstalk, Bluesky, Parker Adkins, Charity Adkins as well as others contained in that profile of Mr. Adkins’s family.  Profile submitted by Mitchell F. Adkins.

To the right you will find the profile of John T. (Tradaughtery) Adkins, a son of Charity Adkins and Randolph Adkins submitted by his 2nd great grandson Douglas Smith.

GARNETT ADKINS CABELL COUNTY BOOK

July 4, 2020

More documentation of heavy trade with the Native Americans and record of intermarriage with  whites EXACTLY where our Adkins and related families lived in Beech Fork even as late and later than 1850.

TWELVEPOLE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

(Article posted by Brenda Terry on Wayne County WV Genealogy FB page, from Ancestry.com.)
 
Outlined text reads:
 
“Incidentally, Alderson Bowen’s general store got much patronage from Indians.  They showed great respect for Alderson because he always kept several formidable pieces of personal artillery handy, including the squirrel gun he had carried into western Virginia from the old Dominion.
 
Alderson’s account book showed that his trade with the Indians was confided chiefly to salt and gunpowder.  There is an occasional entry showing domestication of an Indian, this being revealed by purchases of calico, leather for shoes and household equipment.
 
Mrs. Childers uncovered the name of a full blooded Indian in the account book who was a regular customer of Alserson Bowen’s.  This Indian married a white woman.  His descendants swarm in the Bowen area today.  They show their Indian heritage.  The women are vivid brunettes with coal black eyes, proud carriage and olive complexion.  The men are tall, strong and quick tempered.” (Emphasis added.)
 
*Coming soon:  Lynda Davis Logan details the area of the store, the proximity to our Adkins and related families and the significance of the article.
 

June 17, 2020

Mr. Charles Stackpole personally had contact, e-mail correspondence with and sent this document via U.S. Mail document to Debbie Adkins Vance:

“Debbie Adkins Vance:
 
“A post from Mr. Charles Stackpole, Cherokee Indian Reservation, Oklahoma. (Keep in mind the Shawnee were combined with the Cherokee on the trail of tears.)” 
Permission to post granted by Debbie Adkins Vance.
 
DEBBIES CHARLES STACKPOLE DOCUMENT
 
 

June 2, 2020

Robert Thompson, Administrator of the Adkins Family History Group page on FB posted this newspaper clipping.  Robert gave me permission to post here:

Ferguson and Adkins on Twelve Pole with an Indian Guide

“I found this article in the Huntington Advertiser of January 22, 1874. To my knowledge, this is the only reference I have seen about the members of the Ferguson family and Adkins family being guided by an Indian into the Twelve Pole Valley. First names are not included, but the Ferguson mentioned here is likely Samuel Ferguson who settled on Twelve Pole about 1802. The Adkins could be several. I think Littleberry is a likely candidate as he arrived in the region in the early 1800s. This story was written about seventy years after the Fergusons and Adkinses arrived in the Twelve Pole Valley and was within living memory of the events described. If the accounts are true, this helps provide credence to the theory that the Adkins family had close relations with the Indians.”

TROUTS HILL ARTICLE REPLACEMENT PT 2 WITH RED UNDERLINE

 
 
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ADKINS W NA GUIDE P2
 
 
 

Documentary evidence as to validity of this newspaper article from the book “History of West Virginia: In Two Parts,” by Virgil A. Lewis, 1889, pages 680-681:

BLOG INDIAN GUIDE EVIDENCE P1

BLOG INDIAN GUIDE EVIDENCE P2

 

November 24, 2019

 
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P1
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P2
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P3
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P4
BLOG DORENE NOV 24 2019 AFHG P5